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  • 1
    ISSN: 0248-4900
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Biochimie 75 (1993), S. 347-351 
    ISSN: 0300-9084
    Keywords: DNA sequencing ; automation
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Genomics 21 (1994), S. 150-159 
    ISSN: 0888-7543
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Des substances muqueuses ont été examinées par des méthodes histochimiques au niveau des organes récepteurs cutanés de type ampullaire (organe de type A, Szabo, 1965) faisant partie du système de la ligne latérale des poissons électriques à faible décharge Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridés), Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidés) et Gymnarchus niloticus (Gymnarchidés). Les réactions à l'acide périodique Schiff (P.A.S.) et au bleu de toluidine en solution tampon montrent que les polysaccharides de tous ces organes possèdent des groupements vic-glycols responsables de la positivité au P.A.S. On trouve des mucopolysaccharides neutres au niveau de chaque organe ampullaire. Le cytoplasme des cellules sensorielles de l'organe ampullaire du Gymnotus carapo et lui seul contient du Glycogène. En dehors des mucopolysaccharides neutres, on observe des mucopolysaccharides acides notamment dans le canal épidermique de l'organe de type A de Gymnarchus niloticus et au contact de la région apicale des cellules sensorielles de l'organe de Gnathonemus petersii. Ces derniers sont métachromatiques, leur métachromasie étant dûe à un radical acide carboxylé.
    Notes: Summary The mucoides substances of lateral line receptors of ampullary type have been examined in the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae), Gymnotus carapo (Gymnotidae), Gymnarchus niloticus (Gymnarchidae), by different histochemical methods. Periodic acid Schiff reaction (P.A.S.) and puffered Toluidine Blue tain show, that the polysaccharid of all these three organs contain a vic-glycol groupe, responsible for the positive P.A.S. reaction. Neutral polysaccharids were found at the level of all ampullary type of organ. Only the cytoplasm of the sensory cells in Gymnotus carapo contains glycogen. Acid mucopolysaccharids were observed in the epidermal canal (extracellularly) of Gymnarchus niloticus and also in the close neighbourghood of the sensory cells in Gnathonemus. These acid mucopolysaccharids are metachromatic because of their acid carboxylic radicle.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Histochemistry and cell biology 55 (1978), S. 117-128 
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Glycogen synthetase (2.4.1.11) forms I (independent or active) and D (dependent or passive) as well as the enzymes active in the transformation of the pathways, protein kinase and phosphatase transferase, were studied in the sensory cells and glycogen rich epidermal cells of the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae). For light microscopy an indirect cytochemical method which differentiated between glycogen originally present and that produced during incubation in the presence of UDPG was used. This differentiation was obtained by iodine, PAS and α and β amylases. Glycogen synthetase is present in the sensory cells in the I and D forms. The epidermal cells only contain the D form. Protein kinase (active I→D) has only been found in the sensory cells but phosphatase transferase (active D→I) has been found in both the epidermal cells and the sensory cells, but only within certain organs. Electron microscopy studies of glycogen synthetase I and D and protein kinase were restricted to the sensory cells only. As with the light microscope it was possible to differentiate between native glycogen and newly formed glycogen. This was done using ultrathin sections and staining with uranyl acetate, lead citrate or by the PATAg reaction. It was possible from these observations to locate precisely the positions of these enzymes. In fact, glycogen synthetase I and D are found both in the sensory cytoplasm and in the sensory cavity with the polysaccharide filaments. Protein kinase is also abundant in the sensory cytoplasm especially in the periphery of the cell near the microvillary border.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Les mucus présents au niveau des ≪mormyromastes≫ deGnathonemus petersii (Mormyridés) ont été étudiés avec des techniques histochimiques spécifiques des mucopolysaccharides: réaction au P.A.S., au bleu alcian et au bleu de toluidine. Dans le présent travail, nous donnons des précisions quant à l'emploi du bleu de toluidine en solution tampon selon la méthode de Lison. Ces méthodes nous ont permis de démontrer que les polysaccharides existant dans cet organe sensoriel sont de constitution différente: au niveau de la cavité intraépidermique et des cellules sensorielles (cs 1), le mucus est P.A.S. négatif et métachromatique; par contre, au niveau du canal reliant la cavité intraépidermique et la loge sensorielle des cellules sensorielles (cs 2) le mucus est P.A.S. positif. La métachromasie se manifeste même aux pH très bas (0,6) pour les mucopolysaccharides de la cavité; elle est détruite par l'alcool méthylique acide, la métachromasie étant due à des radicaux acides sulfuriques. L'emploi successif de la réaction au P.A.S. et au bleu alcian montre qu'au niveau de la cavité intraépidermique et du canal, les mucus acides et neutres coexistent. Les différents fixateurs conservent la structure située à l'apex des cellules sensorielles (cs 2) qui a été, en raison de sa position, assimilée par Szabo et Barets (1963) à un ≪statolithe≫; cependant, ce dernier n'est pas lié à des sels calcaires, mais à des polysaccharides présentant beaucoup de similitudes avec les mucopolysaccharides de la cavité intraépidermique. Les mucus identifiés dans le ≪mormyromaste≫ diffèrent de ceux présents dans l'organe ampullaire (Denizot, 1970) et au niveau du ≪Knollenorgan≫ (Denizot, en préparation). Ceci indique une spécificité des mucopolysaccharides pour chaque type d'organe.
    Notes: Summary The mucus content in the “mormyromast” ofGnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae) has been studied with specific histochemical methods for mucopolysaccharides; P.A.S. reaction, toluidine blue and alcian blue. The present work reports observations concerning the use of buffered toluidine blue according to Lison's technique. The existence of the polysaccharides of different constitutions is demonstrated: in the intraepidermal cavity and on the top of the sensory cells (cs 1) the mucus is P.A.S. negative and metachromatic. On the contrary, the mucus is P.A.S. positive in the canal which joins the intraepidermal cavity and in the sensory cavity of the sensory cells (cs 2). The metachromatic reaction of mucopolysaccharides filling the intraepidermal cavity is due to the sulfuric acid radicals; the reaction occurs at very low pH (0.6) and is suppressed by methanol HCL. The successive use of P.A.S. reaction and alcian blue demonstrates the coexistence of acid and neutral mucus. The structure situated on the top of the sensory cells (cs 2) and considered by Szabo and Barets (1963) as a “statolith” does not contain any calcium salts. It is constituted of polysaccharides much similar to the mucopolysaccharides of the intraepidermal cavity. The mucus identified in the mormyromasts are different from those present in the ampullary organs (Denizot, 1970) and in the “Knollenorgan”. This indicates a specificity of the mucopolysaccharides for each type of organ.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The polysaccharides were studied in an electroreceptor organ, the tuberous organ of Gnathonemus petersii (Mormyridae). Histochemical methods (P.A.S., alcian blue, toluidine blue and iron colloidal reactions) allowed us to demonstrate the existence of glycogen in the sensory cytoplasm, and P.A.S. positive polysaccharides in the sensory cavity. The polysaccharides were shown to be amylase proof; they display an acidity due to the existence of sulphated radicals. The histochemical study was completed by a cytochemical analysis: a treatment with thiocarbohydrazide (TCH) according to the Thiery's method. This method allowed us to estimate the glycogen concentration, its localization, and relationship with cellular organites within the sensory cytoplasm, as well as to differentiate the highly glycogenous type II cells of the platform from the other accessory cells (Derbin and Szabo, 1968). After a treatment for 20 hours with TCH, silver stained grains were visible on the polysaccharide filaments of the sensory chamber, between the microvilli and the vacuoles of the epidermal cells lining to the sensory cavity. Silver grains coated the outed surface of the microvilli. Such polysaccharides were not identical to the filamentous polysaccharides of the cavity. In order to determine the cytochemical localization of the polysaccharide acid groups, sections were stained with iron salts. The colloidal iron constitutes a deposit opaque to electrons and located both on the filamentous polysaccharides of the sensory cavity and in the vacuoles of the epidermal cells, indicating that only these filamentous polysaccharides display acid radicals.
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