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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; FOLLOW-UP ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TUMORS ; LINES ; TIME ; PATIENT ; primary ; ANTIGEN ; BIOLOGY ; ASSOCIATION ; MOLECULE ; BREAST ; breast cancer ; BREAST-CANCER ; antibodies ; antibody ; IDENTIFICATION ; PROGRESSION ; immunohistochemistry ; MALIGNANCIES ; DESIGN ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; CARCINOMA-CELLS ; BREAST-CARCINOMA ; PARAMETERS ; MULTIVARIATE ; CARCINOMAS ; FOLLOW-UP TIME ; P-SELECTIN ; CD24 ; CELL MONOCLONAL-ANTIBODIES ; protein expression
    Abstract: Purpose: CD24 is expressed in hematological malignancies as well as in a large variety of solid tumors including breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate CD24 protein expression in breast cancer and to correlate to clinicopatbological data including patient survival.Experimental Design: Primary breast carcinomas (201) with a mean clinical follow-up time of 53 months were immunostained using a monoclonal CD24 antibody (Ab-2, clone 24C02). The staining was evaluated as negative versus positive for statistical analysis.Results: In invasive breast carcinomas, CD24 expression was observed in 84.6% of cases. In univariate survival analyses, a significant association of CD24 expression with shortened patient overall survival (5-year survival rate 91.9% versus 83.8%; P = 0.031; log rank test) and disease-free survival (5-year progression rate 88.3% versus 57.0%; P = 0.0008) was demonstrated. In multivariate analyses CD24, tumor grading and nodal status were significant prognostic parameters for shortened disease-free survival.Conclusions: Our data suggest that CD24 expression in primary breast cancer as detected by immunohistochemistry might be a new marker for a more aggressive breast cancer biology
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14581365
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  • 2
    Abstract: A 19-yr-old woman with previously diagnosed clear cell adenocarcinoma was referred to the Charite for further treatment. Biopsies were taken from the cervix, the endometrium, pseudomembranes in the peritoneum, and sentinel lymph nodes. The morphologic picture of pseudomembranes and inflammation together with the provided information about plasminogen deficiency of the patients led to the hypothesis of ligneous cervicitis. The previously taken biopsies of the adenocarcinoma were reevaluated and showed a clear cell lesion. Further immunohistochemical examination with antibodies against p16, Ki67, CEA, and p53 could not prove its malignant character. As a result we diagnosed an atypical form of microglandular hyperplasia in a patient with ligneous cervicitis. Ligneous cervicitis is a rare inflammatory condition that might affect all mucus membranes in patients with plasminogen deficiency. This case shows the importance of correlating pathologic and clinical findings in the diagnosis of ligneous cervicitis because of the rarity of the disease and the heterogeneity at presentation.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23518917
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  • 3
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Hormone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors are the most important breast cancer biomarkers, and additional objective and quantitative test methods such as messenger RNA (mRNA)-based quantitative analysis are urgently needed. In this study, we investigated the clinical validity of RT-PCR-based evaluation of estrogen receptor (ESR1) and HER2 mRNA expression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 1050 core biopsies from two retrospective (GeparTrio, GeparQuattro) and one prospective (PREDICT) neoadjuvant studies were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR for ESR1 and HER2. RESULTS: ESR1 mRNA was significantly predictive for reduced response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in univariate and multivariate analysis in all three cohorts. The complete pathologically documented response (pathological complete response, pCR) rate for ESR1+/HER2- tumors was 7.3%, 8.0% and 8.6%; for ESR1-/HER2- tumors it was 34.4%, 33.7% and 37.3% in GeparTrio, GeparQuattro and PREDICT, respectively (P 〈 0.001 in each cohort). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis in GeparTrio patients with ESR1+/HER2- tumors had the best prognosis, compared with ESR1-/HER2- and ESR1-/HER2+ tumors [disease-free survival (DFS): P 〈 0.0005, overall survival (OS): P 〈 0.0005]. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that mRNA levels of ESR1 and HER2 predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy and are significantly associated with long-term outcome. As an additional option to standard immunohistochemistry and gene-array-based analysis, quantitative RT-PCR analysis might be useful for determination of the receptor status in breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23131391
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  • 4
    Keywords: GROWTH ; proliferation ; TISSUE ; ACID ; SPECTROMETRY ; MAMMALIAN-CELLS ; aerobic glycolysis ; 2-hydroxyglutarate ; METABOLIC TRANSFORMATION ; GLUTAMINASE
    Abstract: Exogenous glutamine is an important source of energy and molecular building blocks for many tumors. There is a renewed interest in therapeutically targeting glutamine metabolism due to the recent discovery of two novel glutaminase inhibitors. To quantify the dysregulation of the glutamate-glutamine equilibrium in breast cancer, metabolomics analysis of 270 clinical breast cancer and 97 normal breast samples was carried out using gas chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Positive correlation between glutamate and glutamine in normal breast tissues switched to negative correlation between glutamate and glutamine in breast cancer tissues. Compared with the ratio of glutamate to glutamine in normal tissues, we found 56% of the ER+ tumor tissues and 88% of the ER- tumor tissues glutamate-enriched. The glutamate-to-glutamine ratio (GGR) significantly correlated with ER status (p = 8.0E-09) and with tumor grade (p = 3.3E-05). Higher levels of GGR were associated with prolonged overall survival in univariate analysis (HR = 0.77, p = 0.027) and in multivariate analysis (HR = 0.73, p = 0.038). GGR levels were reflected in an unsupervised clustering of metabolomics profiles. In a supervised analysis of metabolomics data and of genome-wide expression data, replacement of GGR by metabolite surrogate markers was feasible, while replacement of GGR by RNA markers had a limited accuracy. Functional analysis of the gene expression data showed negative correlation between glutamate enrichment and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pathway. Our findings may have important implications for patient stratification related to utilization of glutaminase inhibitors.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25155347
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  • 5
    Keywords: GENOME
    Abstract: MOTIVATION: Semiconductor sequencing directly translates chemically encoded information (A, C, G or T) into voltage signals that are detected by a semiconductor device. Changes of pH value and thereby of the electric potential in the reaction well are detected during strand synthesis from nucleotides provided in cyclic repeated flows for each type of nucleotide. To minimize time requirement and costs, it is necessary to know the number of flows that are required for complete coverage of the templates. RESULTS: We calculate the number of required flows in a random sequence model and present exact expressions for cumulative distribution function, expected value and variance. Additionally, we provide an algorithm to calculate the number of required flows for a concrete list of amplicons using a BED file of genomic positions as input. We apply the algorithm to calculate the number of flows that are required to cover six amplicon panels that are used for targeted sequencing in cancer research. The upper bounds obtained for the number of flows allow to enhance the instrument throughput from two chips to three chips per day for four of these panels. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: The algorithm for calculation of the flows was implemented in R and is available as package ionflows from the CRAN repository. CONTACT: jan.budczies@charite.de SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25480372
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  • 6
    Abstract: Increased proliferation is a hallmark of malignant tumors. The proliferation marker Ki67 has been investigated as a breast cancer biomarker, but despite 32 years of research the best cutpoints and the best methods for determination are still under debate. This review is based on an overview on the efforts to standardize Ki67 and to optimize its performance that was presented at the St. Gallen oncology conference 2015. The clinical validity of Ki67 as a prognostic marker as well as a predictive marker (in the neoadjuvant setting) has been shown in several meta-analyses. Depending on cohort characteristics, molecular subtype and clinical setting, Ki67 is a prognostic marker, a predictive marker, or both. Many different cutpoints for Ki67 have been reported, but it is has not been possible to determine an evidence-based "optimal" cutpoint. This supports the view that Ki67 is continuous marker, reflecting the continuous variation of the proliferation rate in different tumors. We should probably stop looking for an "optimal" cutpoint for Ki67 because it simply does not exist. It is evident from the results of several ring trials that intermediate levels of Ki67 are particularly difficult for standardization. Due to the low analytical validity in the intermediate range as well as intratumoral heterogeneity, the clinical utility of intermediate Ki67 levels is limited. Clinical decisions should not be based on small differences in the intermediate range and additional molecular tests might be necessary for tumors with intermediate Ki67 levels. For the two groups of tumors with a very low or a very high Ki67 a clinical interpretation could be straightforward. Despite these limitations, the assessment of proliferation is a central parameter for tumor characterization and an important element of the pathological assessment.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26283598
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The likelihood of recurrence in patients with breast cancer who have HER2-positive tumors is relatively high, although trastuzumab is a remarkably effective drug in this setting. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein (STAT3), a transcription factor that is persistently tyrosine-705 phosphorylated (pSTAT3) in response to numerous oncogenic signaling pathways, activates downstream proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. We hypothesized that pSTAT3 expression in HER2-positive breast cancer will confer trastuzumab resistance. METHODS: We integrated reverse phase protein array (RPPA) and gene expression data from patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. RESULTS: We show that a pSTAT3-associated gene signature (pSTAT3-GS) is able to predict pSTAT3 status in an independent dataset (TCGA; AUC = 0.77, P = 0.02). This suggests that STAT3 induces a characteristic set of gene expression changes in HER2-positive cancers. Tumors characterized as high pSTAT3-GS were associated with trastuzumab resistance (log rank P = 0.049). These results were confirmed using data from the prospective, randomized controlled FinHer study, where the effect was especially prominent in HER2-positive estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors (interaction test P = 0.02). Of interest, constitutively activated pSTAT3 tumors were associated with loss of PTEN, elevated IL6, and stromal reactivation. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides compelling evidence for a link between pSTAT3 and trastuzumab resistance in HER2-positive primary breast cancers. Our results suggest that it may be valuable to add agents targeting the STAT3 pathway to trastuzumab for treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26234940
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  • 8
    Abstract: Neoadjuvant therapy is very often an adequate alternative to adjuvant therapy. This review is summarizing the recent advances made in the area of neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer. The focus will lie on recently published clinical trials but will not further highlight surgical, imaging and radiooncological issues related to neoadjuvant therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the last 1-1.5 years it has been discussed if neoadjuvant treatment can be used as faster way to get access to new therapies, based on new data in HER2+ breast cancer suggesting a higher pCR rate when a dual anti-HER2 therapy was used. Nevertheless this higher pCR rate does not necessarily translate always into a better survival. In TNBC carboplatin could be identified as an asset for patients, especially in patients with gBRCA mutations. However, mature long term data are still missing. The neoadjuvant approach is ideal to identify new biomarkers which predict response or resistance to the given treatment. Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes and PIK3CA mutations are amongst the most promising markers. SUMMARY: Neoadjuvant treatment should be considered for all patients with HER2-positive or triple negative breast cancer. Clinical trials in this setting are currently investigating new approaches.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26387601
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  • 9
    Abstract: Trastuzumab is a remarkably effective therapy for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)--positive breast cancer (BC). However, not all women with high levels of HER2 benefit from trastuzumab. By integrating mRNA and protein expression data from Reverse-Phase Protein Array Analysis (RPPA) in HER2-positive BC, we developed gene expression metagenes that reflect pathway activation levels. Next we assessed the ability of these metagenes to predict resistance to adjuvant trastuzumab using gene expression data from two independent datasets.10 metagenes passed external validation (false discovery rate [fdr] 〈 0.05) and showed biological relevance with their pathway of origin. These metagenes were further screened for their association with trastuzumab resistance. An association with trastuzumab resistance was observed and validated only for the AnnexinA1 metagene (ANXA1). In the randomised phase III Fin-her study, tumours with low levels of the ANXA1 metagene showed a benefit from trastuzumab (multivariate: hazard ratio [HR] for distant recurrence = 0.16[95%CI 0.05-0.5]; p = 0.002; fdr = 0.03), while high expression levels of the ANXA1 metagene were associated with a lack of benefit to trastuzmab (HR = 1.29[95%CI 0.55-3.02]; p = 0.56). The association of ANXA1 with trastuzumab resistance was successfully validated in an independent series of subjects who had received trastuzumab with chemotherapy (Log Rank; p = 0.01).In conclusion, in HER2-positive BC, some proteins are associated with distinct gene expression profiles. Our findings identify the ANXA1metagene as a novel biomarker for trastuzumab resistance.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26358523
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  • 10
    Abstract: Inhibition of the PD-L1 (CD274) - PD-1 axis has emerged as a powerful cancer therapy that prevents evasion of tumor cells from the immune system. While immunohistochemical detection of PD-L1 was introduced as a predictive biomarker with variable power, much less is known about copy number alterations (CNA) affecting PD-L1 and their associations with expression levels, mutational load, and survival. To gain insight, we employed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets to comprehensively analyze 22 major cancer types for PD-L1 CNAs. We observed a diverse landscape of PD-L1 CNAs, which affected focal regions, chromosome 9p or the entire chromosome 9. Deletions of PD-L1 were more frequent than gains (31% vs. 12%) with deletions being most prevalent in melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Copy number gains most frequently occurred in ovarian cancer, head and neck cancer, bladder cancer, cervical and endocervical cancer, sarcomas, and colorectal cancers. Fine-mapping of the genetic architecture revealed specific recurrently amplified and deleted core regions across cancers with putative biological and clinical consequences. PD-L1 CNAs correlated significantly with PD-L1 mRNA expression changes in many cancer types, and tumors with PD-L1 gains harbored significantly higher mutational load compared to non-amplified cases (median: 78 non-synonymous mutations vs. 40, P = 7.1e-69). Moreover, we observed that, in general, both PD-L1 amplifications and deletions were associated with dismal prognosis. In conclusion, PD-L1 CNAs, in particular PD-L1 copy number gains, represent frequent genetic alterations across many cancers, which influence PD-L1 expression levels, are associated with higher mutational loads, and may be exploitable as predictive biomarker for immunotherapy regimens. (c) 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27106868
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