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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-04-21
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1439-0973
    Keywords: Key WordsAbsidia corymbifera ; Mucormycosis ; Acute myeloid leukemia ; Neutropenia ; Vasculitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary An 18-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because of subcutaneous hematoma and fever of unknown origin. Acute myeloid leukemia was diagnosed and empirical antimicrobial treatment and induction chemotherapy were started. After initial defervescence, fever relapsed 21 days after the onset of neutropenia. The CT scan of the lung was consistent with an invasive fungal infection. Treatment with amphotericin B was started and antimicrobial treatment was continued with liposomal amphotericin B because of an increase in creatinine later. The fever persisted and the patient suddenly developed progressive neurological symptoms. CT scan of the head suggested cerebral infarction and angiography of the extra- and intracranial arteries showed signs of vasculitis. Six days after the onset of neurological symptoms cerebral death was diagnosed. Autopsy revealed non-septate, irregularly branched hyphae in various histologic sections including brain. Absidia corymbifera could be isolated from lung tissue confirming the diagnosis of disseminated mucormycosis. In this case, angiographic findings suggested severe cerebral vasculitis which was in fact caused by thromboembolic dissemination of fungal hyphae. This case underlines the fact that cerebral symptoms in febrile neutropenic patients are highly indicative for fungal infections of the brain.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-675X
    Keywords: Apoptosis ; Bcl-2 ; CD95 ; cytokines ; differentiation ; FasL ; heat shock proteins ; hypoxia ; multicellular tumour spheroids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Multicellular tumour spheroids (MCTS) are three-dimensional cell culture systems which are widely used in cancer research. They are characterized by an outer zone of proliferating cells, an inner region of differentiating quiescent cells and an area of so-called necrotic cell death in their centre. The exact cause of this cell death, a controversy for many years, was the aim of the present study. Our data show that cell death in the centre of MCTS of three colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines (HRT-18, HT-29 and CX-2) was induced by apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were initially distributed at random but accumulated very quickly in the quiescent and central area at day 4–5, suggesting a time- rather than size-dependent synchronization of apoptosis parallel to the formation of the proliferation gradient in MCTS. To study mechanisms inducing apoptosis, the Fas-pathway was investigated. A cell--cell contact-dependent expression of CD95 was found in all MCTS. FasL was not detected in monolayer cultures, but was expressed in spheroids of HRT-18 and CX-2. We found that TNFα and TGFβ1 activated the CD95 pathway in all three cell lines. Since both TNF-α and TGF-β are known to be inducible by hypoxia in a variety of cell types, we suggest that these hypoxia-induced factors sensitize the CD95 pathway in the quiescent area of MCTS. Furthermore, a loss of the heat shock proteins 27, 32, 60, 73 and 90 was observed in the quiescent area of spheroids. This suggests that tumour cell differentiation in the inner region of MCTS may be an additional factor inducing apoptosis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Abstract: PURPOSE: We elucidated the value of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) as an independent predictor for pathologic complete response (pCR) rate and as a prognostic marker for disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We evaluated stromal TILs in 498 HER2-positive breast cancer samples of the neoadjuvant GeparQuattro (G4) and GeparQuinto (G5) trials. Levels of TILs were determined as a continuous parameter per 10% increase and as lymphocyte-predominant breast cancer (LPBC; 〉/= 60% TILs), and correlated with pCR rate and DFS. RESULTS: In the complete cohort, HER2-positive LPBC cases had a significantly increased pCR rates compared with non-LPBC types. They were significant predictors for pCR in univariate (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.002; LPBC: OR 2.02, P = 0.002) and multivariate analyses (10% TILs: OR 1.1, P = 0.014; LPBC: OR 1.87, P = 0.009). This effect was also detectable in the trastuzumab-treated (10% TILs: OR 1.12, P = 0.018; LPBC: OR 2.08, P = 0.013) but not in the lapatinib-treated subgroup. We identified a low-risk (pCR/LPBC) and a high-risk group (no pCR/no LPBC) regarding DFS. In triple-positive breast cancer, TILs are of more prognostic relevance than pCR. CONCLUSIONS: We could demonstrate the predictive and prognostic impact of TILs in HER2-positive breast cancer in the neoadjuvant setting. In combination with pCR rate, TILs may help to stratify prognostic subgroups, thereby guiding future therapy decisions. Clin Cancer Res; 22(23); 5747-54. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27189162
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  • 5
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The PI3K/AKT pathway and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) aberrations are common in breast cancer. We investigated the correlation between phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA), PTEN, p4EBP1 (phosphorylated E4 binding protein 1), and pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients receiving neoadjuvant therapy. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We retrospectively evaluated PIK3CA, PTEN, and p4EBP1 protein expression in centrally HER2-positive patients (n = 181) who received epirubicin cyclophosphamide/trastuzumab followed by docetaxel/trastuzumab alone or concomitant/followed by capecitabine within the GeparQuattro study. PTEN was assessed using the automated quantitative immunofluorescence analysis and was analyzed as a dichotomic variable. p4EBP1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and used as a continuous and dichotomic variable. RESULTS: p4EBP1 was available from 137, PTEN from 108, and PIK3CA genotype from 83 patients. Overall, the pCR rate in PTEN-low tumors was 27.6%, and in PTEN-high tumors, it was 57.1% (P = 0.010). pCR rates were not statistically different between PIK3CA wild-type and mutant (35% vs. 22%) or p4EBP1 IRS 〈/= 4 and IRS 〉 4 (39% vs. 33%). pCR rate was 57.1% (8/14) in PTEN-high/PIK3CA wild-type and decreased to 15.4% in PTEN-low/PIK3CA-mutant tumors (P = 0.023). In multivariable analysis adjusted for baseline parameters, PTEN independently predicted pCR in the following cohorts: overall [OR, 7.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.03-28.06; P = 0.003], PIK3CA wild-type (OR, 23.81; 95% CI, 1.75-324.05; P = 0.017), p4EBP1 IRS 〉 4 (OR, 11.53; 95% CI, 1.84-72.24; P = 0.009), and hormone receptor-positive (OR, 40.91; 95% CI, 2.93-570.44; P = 0.006). p4EBP1 was independently predictive for pCR in PIK3CA wild-type tumors (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.03-0.78; P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The study showed the potential role of PIK3CA genotype, PTEN, and p4EBP in predicting pCR after anthracycline-taxane-based chemotherapy and anti-HER2 treatment. Clin Cancer Res; 22(11); 2675-83. (c)2016 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26758558
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  • 6
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: TP53 mutations are frequent in breast cancer, however their clinical relevance in terms of response to chemotherapy is controversial. METHODS: 450 pre-therapeutic, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded core biopsies from the phase II neoadjuvant GeparSixto trial that included HER2-positive and triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) were subjected to Sanger sequencing of exons 5-8 of the TP53 gene. TP53 status was correlated to response to neoadjuvant anthracycline/taxane-based chemotherapy with or without carboplatin and trastuzumab/lapatinib in HER2-positive and bevacizumab in TNBC. p53 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in the TNBC subgroup. RESULTS: Of 450 breast cancer samples 297 (66.0%) were TP53 mutant. Mutations were significantly more frequent in TNBC (74.8%) compared to HER2-positive cancers (55.4%, P 〈 0.0001). Neither mutations nor different mutation types and effects were associated with pCR neither in the whole study group nor in molecular subtypes (P 〉 0.05 each). Missense mutations tended to be associated with a better survival compared to all other types of mutations in TNBC (P = 0.093) and in HER2-positive cancers (P = 0.071). In TNBC, missense mutations were also linked to higher numbers of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, P = 0.028). p53 protein overexpression was also linked with imporved survival (P = 0.019). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms high TP53 mutation rates in TNBC and HER2-positive breast cancer. Mutations did not predict the response to an intense neoadjuvant chemotherapy in these two molecular breast cancer subtypes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27611952
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  • 7
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: The predictive value of PIK3CA mutations in HER2 positive (HER2+) breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant anti-HER2 and chemotherapy has been reported, but the power for subgroup analyses was lacking. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We combined individual patient data from five clinical trials evaluating PIK3CA mutations and associations with pathological complete response (pCR), disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients received either trastuzumab (T), lapatinib (L) or the combination T/L in addition to a taxane-based chemotherapy. PIK3CA was genotyped in tumour biopsies taken before therapy. RESULTS: A total of 967 patients were included in this analysis; the median follow-up is 47 months. Overall, the pCR rate was significantly lower in the PIK3CA mutant compared with the wild-type group (16.2% versus 29.6%; P 〈 0.001). Within the hormone-receptor positive (HR+) subgroup, the PIK3CA mutant group had a pCR rate of only 7.6% compared with 24.2% in the wild-type group (P 〈 0.001). In contrast, in the HER2+/HR- group, there was no difference in pCR (27.2% versus 36.4%; P = 0.125) according to PIK3CA mutation status (interaction test P = 0.036). According to treatment arm, the pCR rate for mutant versus wild-type was 20.3% versus 27.1% for T (P = 0.343), 11.3% versus 16.9% for L (P = 0.369) and 16.7% versus 39.1% for T/L (P 〈 0.001). In the HR+ T/L group, the pCR rate was 5.5% versus 33.9% (interaction between HR and PIK3CA genotype P = 0.008). DFS and OS were not significantly different by mutation status, though the incidence rate of events was low. However, HR+/PIK3CA mutant patients seemed to have significantly worse DFS {hazard ratio (HR) 1.56 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.45], P = 0.050; Pinteraction = 0.021}. T/L tended to improve DFS compared with T in the wild-type cohort, especially in the HR- group [HR 0.72, 95% CI (0.41-1.25), P = 0.242]. CONCLUSION: Overall PIK3CA mutant/HER2+ tumours had significantly lower pCR rates compared with wild-type tumours, however mainly confined to the HR+/PIK3CA mutant population. No definite conclusions can be drawn regarding survival.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 27177864
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  • 8
    Abstract: Blockade of immune checkpoints has become a powerful tool in cancer medicine, which is effective across various solid cancer types and hematologic malignancies. While immunohistochemical detection of PD-L1 expression in tumor cells, immune cells, or both has been introduced as predictive biomarker in several clinical trials, shortcomings and limitations of this approach were quickly recognized. As a single biomarker is unlikely to adequately reflect the complex interplay between immune cells and cancer, various genetic determinants of therapy success, including microsatellite instability, mutational burden, and PD-L1 amplification, are being investigated. Very recent work indicates that mutations in B2M, JAK1, and JAK2 render melanoma resistant to immune checkpoint blockade, thus serving as negative response predictors. Using the TCGA dataset, we performed a pan-cancer analysis of potentially damaging mutations in key genes implicated in antigen presentation and interferon-gamma signaling and investigated associations with transcript levels of immune checkpoint genes, cytolytic activity, and mutational burden. For B2M, JAK1, and JAK2, we observed overall mutation frequencies of 1.8%, 2%, and 2.6%, respectively, and found significant associations with mutational burden. On pathway level, melanoma as well as bladder, gastric, and lung cancer were most frequently affected by putative resistance mutations with mutation rates of 27%-50% in the antigen presentation pathway and of 16%-21% in the interferon signaling pathway. Our analysis suggests that a significant number of tumors harbor mutations that may negatively interfere with immune checkpoint inhibition, or confer a higher likelihood of resistance for which a second hit is ultimately required. Since these mutations are prevalent in treatment-naive tumors, genetic screening prior to therapy might complement current approaches at predicting response to immune checkpoint blockade.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28466543
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  • 9
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with a dismal prognosis and poor therapeutic response to current chemotherapy regimens in unselected patient populations. Recently, it has been shown that PDAC may be stratified into functionally and therapeutically relevant molecular subgroups and that some of these subtypes can be recapitulated by immunohistochemistry for KRT81 (QM/squamous/basal like) and HNF1A (non-QM, overlap with exocrine/ADEX subtype). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We validated the different outcome of the HNF1A / KRT81 PDAC subtypes in two independent cohorts of surgically treated patients and examined the treatment response to chemotherapy in a third cohort of unresectable patients. The first two cohorts included 262 and 130 patients, respectively, and the third independent cohort comprised advanced-stage PDAC patients who were either treated with FOLFIRINOX (64 patients) or Gemcitabine (61 patients). RESULTS: In both cohorts with resected PDAC the HNF1A-positive subtype showed the best, the KRT81-positive subtype the worst and the double negative subtype an intermediate survival (p 〈0.013 and 〈0.009, respectively). In the chemotherapy cohort the survival difference between the double negative and the HNF1A-positive subtype was lost, while the dismal prognosis of KRT81-positive PDAC patients was retained (p 〈0.021). Patients with a KRT81-positive subtype did not benefit from FOLFIRINOX-therapy, while those with HNF1A-positive tumors responded better compared to Gemcitabine-based treatment (p 〈0.038). CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical stratification recapitulating molecular subtypes of PDAC using HNF1A and KRT81 is associated with significantly differing outcomes and responses to chemotherapy. These results may pave the way towards future pretherapeutic biomarker based stratification of PDAC patients.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29101303
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  • 10
    Abstract: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a central predictive biomarker in breast cancer. Inaccurate HER2 results in different laboratories could be as high as 20%. However, this statement is based on data generated more than 13 years ago and may not reflect the standards of modern diagnostic pathology. We compared central and local HER2 testing in a total of 1581 HER2-positive tumors from five clinical trials. We evaluated the clinical relevance for pathological complete response (pCR) and disease-free survival in a subgroup of 677 tumors, which received an anti-HER2 therapy. Over the period of 12 years, the discordance rate for HER2 decreased from 52.4 (GeparTrio) to 8.4% (GeparSepto). Discordance rates were significantly higher in hormone receptor (HR)-positive tumors (26.6%), compared to HR-negative tumors (16.3%, P〈0.0001), which could be explained by a different distribution of HER2 mRNA levels in HR-positive and HR-negative tumors. pCR rates were significantly lower in discordant tumors (13.7%) compared to concordant tumors (32.2%, GeparQuattro and GeparQuinto, P〈0.001). In survival analysis, tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced overall survival (OS) in the HR-negative group (P=0.019) and a trend for improved OS in the HR-positive group (P=0.125). The performance of local HER2 testing was considerably improved over time and has reached a 92% concordance, which shows that quality initiatives in diagnostic pathology are working. Tumors with discordant HER2 testing had a reduced therapy response and different survival rates.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 29271415
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