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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Neurosciences ; Biomedicine ; Neurosciences ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Identification of Glutamatergic Neurons -- Single Nanoparticle Tracking: A Method for Investigating the Surface Dynamics of Glutamate Receptors -- Positron Emission Tomography of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors -- NMR Spectroscopy of Brain Glutamate Function -- Imaging Glutamate with Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Sensors -- Measurement of Astrocytic Glutamate Release using Genetically-Encoded Probe Combined with TIRF Microscopy -- Drugs to Alter Extracellular Concentration of Glutamate: Modulators of Glutamate Uptake Systems -- Drugs to Tune Up Glutamatergic Systems: Modulators of Glutamate Metabotropic Receptors -- Glutamatergic Synthesis, Recycling, and Receptor Pharmacology at Drosophila and Crustacean Neuromuscular Junctions -- Optical Control of Glutamate Receptors of the NMDA-Kind in Mammalian Neurons, with the use of Photoswitchable Ligands -- In Vivo Electrochemical Studies of Optogenetic-Control of Glutamate Signaling Measured Using Enzyme-Based Ceramic Microelectrode Arrays -- Separation-Based Sensors using Microchip Electrophoresis with Microdialysis for Monitoring Glutamate and Other Bioactive Amines -- Brain Glutamate Monitoring by Microdialysis and Separation Methods with a Special Focus on Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence Detection -- In Vivo Determination of Glutamate Uptake by Brain Microdialysis -- Enzymes of Glutamate System -- The Glutamatergic System as Potential Clinical Biomarkers for Blood and Cerebrospinal Fluid Monitoring -- Clinical CNS Microdialysis of Glutamate with a Special Methodological Focus on Human Spinal Cord
    Abstract: This volume presents techniques and recent developments in biochemical approaches to study glutamatergic neurotransmission. This book contains detailed discussions on tracing neuronal pathways, functional or spectroscopic imaging, optogenetic or pharmacological tools, and extracellular neurochemistry in experimental clinical models. The chapters cover topics such as: identification of glutamatergic neurons in a discrete brain area, tools to study dynamics of single ionotropic receptors, in vivo extracellular glutamate monitoring in preclinical research using biosensors, capillary electrophoresis and liquid chromatography, and potential brain glutamatergic clinical biomarkers in biofluids and tissues. In Neuromethods series style, chapters include the kind of detail and key advice from the specialists needed to get successful results in your laboratory. Cutting-edge and authoritative, Biochemical Approaches for Glutamatergic Neurotransmission is a valuable resource for researchers studying glutamate neurochemistry
    Pages: XXII, 565 p. 136 illus., 101 illus. in color. : online resource.
    ISBN: 9781493972289
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1440-1681
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 1. The effector mechanisms responsible for the bradycardia evoked by bilateral lesions of the brainstem coinciding with the A1 catecholamine cells were analyzed in four groups of rabbits. Sham or lesion operations were carried out in animals with intact cardiac effectors, with cardiac sympathetic block induced by propranolol, with cardiac vagal block induced by methylscopolamine and with total cardiac autonomic block induced by the use of both drugs together.2. Lesions produced a transient increase in blood pressure of 25 (s.e.m. =4) mmHg and a transient bradycardia, or increase in heart period of 141 (s.e.m. =18) ms. The bradycardia had both baroreflex-independent and baroreflex-dependent components as determined from analysis of stimulus response curves relating heart period to mean arterial pressure.3. The ‘baroindependent’ component of the bradycardia, measured as a lengthening in heart period, ranged from 35–49 ms in the four groups of animals and was unaffected by administration of propranolol alone, methylscopolamine alone, or of both together. These findings suggest that the baroindependent slowing of the heart is not mediated through changes in activity of either the cardiac sympathetic nerves or of the vagal fibres innervating the heart.4. The ‘baroreceptor’ component of the bradycardia reflects that portion of the decrease in heart rate resulting directly from the increase in blood pressure. This component was found to account for a lengthening in the heart period of 81 (s.e.m. =23) ms in animals with intact effector mechanisms: it was virtually abolished by methylscopolamine (0 ms, s.e.m. =13) but not significantly affected by propranolol (54 ms, s.e.m. =25), indicating that this barodependent component is predominantly mediated through the vagus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: The activities of the three major catecholamine-synthesizing enzymes were determined in brain tissue pellets dissected from 500-μm thick horizontal sections of rat lower brainstem. The rostrocaudal distributions of the three enzymatic activities were generally not parallel, suggesting differences in the respective localization of the noradrenergic and adrenergic neurons. The difference was most important in the A2-C2 region where the maximal activity of phenylethanolarnine-N-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.28) was located 1.5 mm more rostrally than the maximal activities of the tyrosine hydroxylase (EC 1.14.16.2) and dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1). This result indicates that a more specific dissection of the adrenergic and noradrenergic neurons could be performed in the A2-C2 area of the rat brainstem.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Cytosolic creatine kinase (rabbit muscle) ; mitochondrial creatine kinase (pig heart) ; electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy ; Edman degradation ; proteinase K specificity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract Proteinase K cleaves selectively both cytosolic and mitochondrial isoforms of creatine kinase leading to the appearance of two fragments, a large N-terminal one (K1) and a small C-terminal peptide (K2) which remain associated together. The loss of enzymatic activity correlates with the extent of monomer cleavage. N-terminal sequencing of the K2 fragments from rabbit cytosolic and pig mitochondrial creatine kinase shows that these peptides begin with A328 and A324, respectively. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry demonstrates that K2 peptide is composed of 53 residues (A328–K380). However, the C-terminal end of the K1 fragment is not A327 as expected, but D325. Thus, the amino acids residues T326 and A327 have been eliminated by the protease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Ribosomal proteins ; Herpes simplex virus ; Phosphorylation ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In addition to an irreversible stimulation of S6 ribosomal protein phosphorylation, there is a modification of a subset of ribosomal proteins by phosphorylation after herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection. Moreover, in the course of this infection, three additional phosphorylated proteins can be extracted from ribosomes and separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) of total ribosomal proteins. One of them exhibits an identical molecular mass to L30, while being more acidic. This protein is phosphorylated on serine residues. The kinetics of appearance of this protein in the ribosomal fraction correlated with a decrease in L30 staining, as shown by 2-DE. Determination of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of this extra phosphoprotein and of L30-derived peptides demonstrated the identity of these two proteins.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: In the cruciferous plant Brassica oleracea L. (cabbage), the S-locus specific glycoproteins (SLSGs) isolated only in stigmas are considered to play an important role in the normal prevention of self-fertilization. Recent molecular data have shown that the gene encoding these glycoproteins (the SLG gene) belonged to a multigenic family consisting of about 10 homologous copies among which an, other member is expressed, the S-locus related gene (SLR1gene). Our aim was to determine whether the SLR1-gene proteins were expressed in the stigmatic tissues. We first identified the putative SLSGs or SLR1-proteins by Con A-peroxidase detection of glycoproteins separated after isoelectric focusing in polyacrylamide gels. We describe a fast purification procedure for the glycoproteins of interest, based on analytical isoelectric focusing, electrophoresis, and electroblotting of proteins onto polyvinylidene difluoride membranes. Blotted proteins were sequenced for N-terminal amino acid determination. By comparison of the N-terminal sequences of the purified proteins with the peptide sequence predicted from the SLR1-cDNA, we demonstrate the expression of SLR1-like proteins in stigmas of B. oleracea.
    Additional Material: 6 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Weinheim : Wiley-Blackwell
    Electrophoresis 15 (1994), S. 46-50 
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: An electrophoretic method for detecting neurotensin in tissues was developed. Homogenates of rat duodenum and adrenal glands were first extracted by solid-phase extraction and purified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The neurotensin-rich fraction was further analyzed by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using a commercial instrument with UV detection. A minor peak was detected as neurotensin and its identity was further confirmed by performing several CZE analyses at different pH values. Such an approach could be used to analyze with good molecular specificity the neuropeptides in some human tissues.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Capillary zone electrophoresis ; Dopamine ; Laser-induced fluorescence ; Naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde ; Noradrenaline ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection has been shown to give rapid separations with high resolution and sensitivity. These advantages are documented for catecholamines analysis in the present work, which shows that separation of subnanomolar concentrations of dopamine and noradrenaline (detection limits of 8.6 × 10-11 M, corresponding to a detected amount of 143 zeptomoles of each catecholamine) can be performed in 82 s with an efficiency of several million theoretical plates.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Microdialysis sampling combined with capillary electrophoresis is emerging as a new approach in drug studies. It allows the continuous monitoring, in vivo or in vitro, of changes in free endogenous compounds as well as in drug substances, following the administration of pharmacological agents. The low volume requirement of capillary electrophoresis for injection allows the collection of dialysates during short sampling times, leading to a precise temporal description of drug-induced biochemical changes or pharmacokinetics. Various protocols can be used for analyzing endogenous compounds and drug substances in microdialysis samples. Capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection often affords the high sensitivity level which is needed in most studies. Furthermore, the direct on-line coupling of microdialysis, derivatization of samples, and electrophoretic analysis now brings a separation-based biosensor, allowing a real-time description of chemical events with a high molecular specificity. Microdialysis sampling combined with capillary electrophoresis has recently been used to assess pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic characteristics of various drugs in animal studies; it may also represent a new approach in clinical pharmacology in the near future.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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