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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0983
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas ; Gene mapping ; Mitochondrial genome ; Evolution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary We report the cloning and physical mapping of the mitochondrial genome of Chlamydomonas eugametos together with a comparison of the overall sequence structure of this DNA with the mitochondrial genome of Chlamydomonas moewusii, its closely related and interfertile relative. The C. eugametos mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has a 24 kb circular map and is thus 2 kb larger than the 22 kb circular mitochondrial genome of C. moewusii. Restriction mapping and heterologous fragment hybridization experiments indicate that the C. eugametos and C. moewusii mtDNAs are colinear. Nine cross-hybridizing restriction fragments common to the C. eugametos and C. moewusii mtDNAs, and spanning the entirety of these genomes, show length differences between homologous fragments which vary from 0.1 to 2.3 kb. A 600 bp subfragment of C. moewusii mtDNA, within one of these conserved fragments, showed no hybridization with the C. eugametos mtDNA. Of the 73 restriction sites identified in the C. eugametos and C. moewusii mtDNAs, five are specific to C. moewusii, eight are specific to C. eugametos and 30 are common to both species. Hybridization experiments with gene probes derived from protein-coding and ribosomal RNA-coding regions of wheat and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mtDNAs support the view that the small and large subunit ribosomal RNA-coding regions of the C. eugametos and C. moewusii mtDNAs are interrupted and interspersed with each other and with protein-coding regions, as are the ribosomal RNA-coding regions of C. reinhardtii mtDNA; however, the specific arrangement of these coding elements in the C. eugametos and C. moewusii mtDNAs appears different from that of C. reinhardtii mtDNA.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by the inheritance of a copy of the gene encoding mutant huntingtin with an expanded CAG repeat. Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) mRNA decreases in transgenic HD mice expressing exon 1 of the human huntingtin gene (HD). The mouse PDE10A mRNA is expressed through alternative splicing and polyadenylation in a tissue-specific manner and that transcription of striatal PDE10A mRNA is driven by two promoters. PDE10A2 is the predominant isoform of the gene is expressed in the striatum. Using in situ hybridization and quantitative RT-PCR, we determined that decreased steady-state levels of PDE10A2 mRNA were caused by an altered transcription initiation rate rather than by post-transcriptional mRNA instability in HD mice. Transcription from three initiation sites located within a 50-bp region in the PDE10A2-specific promoter was differentially affected by the presence of the mutant huntingtin transgene. The mouse and human PDE10A2 promoters are highly conserved with respect to the relative position of cis-regulatory elements. Several transcription factors that have been shown to interact with mutant huntingtin, including Sp1, neuron restrictive silencing factor, TATA-binding protein and cAMP-response element binding protein, are unlikely to be involved in mutant huntingtin-induced PDE10A2 transcriptional dysregulation.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1460-9568
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Down-regulation of T-type Ca channel current and mRNA occurs following differentiation of Y79 retinoblastoma cells. To understand how the decrease in expression is linked to cell differentiation, we examined transcriptional regulation of the Cav3.1 Ca channel gene, CACNA1G. We identified two putative promoters (A and B) in 1.3 kb of cloned genomic DNA. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends-polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated that two transcripts with different 5′ untranslated regions are generated by different transcription start sites, with promoter A favoured in undifferentiated cells and promoter B favoured in differentiated cells. Functional analyses of the promoter sequence revealed that both promoters are active. Enhancer and repressor sequences were identified upstream of promoter A and B, respectively. These results suggest that the down-regulation of α1G mRNA in differentiated Y79 cells is mediated primarily by decreased activity of promoter A, which could occur in conjunction with repression of the activity of promoter B. The decrease in T-type Ca channel expression in Y79 cells may be an essential signal affecting phenotypic maturation and expression of other ion channel subtypes in the differentiated cells.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1432
    Keywords: Key words: Evolution —Chlamydomonas — Mitochondria — Ribosomal RNA genes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. The fragmented mitochondrial ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) of the green algae Chlamydomonas eugametos and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii are discontinuously encoded in subgenic modules that are scrambled in order and interspersed with protein coding and tRNA genes. The mitochondrial rRNA genes of these two algae differ, however, in both the distribution and organization of rRNA coding information within their respective genomes. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the phylogenetic relationships between the mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of C. eugametos and C. reinhardtii and those of the conventional mitochondrial rRNA genes of the green alga, Prototheca wickerhamii, and land plants and (2) to attempt to deduce the evolutionary pathways that gave rise to the unusual mitochondrial rRNA gene structures in the genus Chlamydomonas. Although phylogenetic analysis revealed an affiliation between the mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences of the two Chlamydomonas taxa to the exclusion of all other mitochondrial rRNA gene sequences tested, no specific affiliation was noted between the Chlamydomonas sequences and P. wickerhamii or land plants. Calculations of the minimal number of transpositions required to convert hypothetical ancestral rRNA gene organizations to the arrangements observed for C. eugametos and C. reinhardtii mitochondrial rRNA genes, as well as a limited survey of the size of mitochondrial rRNAs in other members of the genus, lead us to propose that the last common ancestor of Chlamydomonas algae contained fragmented mitochondrial rRNA genes that were nearly co-linear with conventional rRNA genes.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Chlamydomonas eugametos ; evolution ; genome sequence ; green algae ; group I introns ; mitochondrial DNA
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The complete nucleotide sequence of the Chlamydomonas eugametos (Chlamydomonadales, Chlorophyceae, sensu Mattox and Stewart) mitochondrial genome has been determined (22 897 bp, 34.6% G + C). The genes identified in this circular-mapping genome include those for apocytochrome b, subunit 1 of the cytochrome oxidase complex, subunits 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 of the NADH dehydrogenase complex, discontinuous large and small subunit ribosomal rRNAs and three tRNAs whose anticodons CAU, CCA and UUG are specific for methionine, tryptophan and glutamine, respectively. The C. eugametos mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), therefore, shares almost the same reduced set of coding functions and similar unusual features of rRNA gene organization with the linear 15.8 kb mtDNA of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the only other completely sequenced chlamydomonadalean mtDNA. However, sequence analysis of the C. eugametos mtDNA has revealed the following distinguishing features relative to those of C. reinhardtii: (1) the absence of a reverse transcriptase-like gene homologue, (2) the presence of an additional gene for tRNAmet that may be a pseudogene, (3) a completely different gene order, (4) transcription of all genes from the same mtDNA strand, (5) a lower G + C content, (6) less pronounced bias in codon usage, and (7) nine group I introns, several of which contain open reading frames coding for potential maturases/endonucleases and two have a nucleotide at the 5′ or 3′ splice site of the deduced precursor RNAs that deviates from highly conserved nucleotides reported in other group I introns. The features of mitochondrial genome organization and gene content shared by C. eugametos and C. reinhardtii contrast with those of other green algal mtDNAs that have been characterized in detail. The deep evolutionary divergence between these two Chlamydomonas taxa within the Chlamydomonadales suggests that their shared features of mitochondrial genome organization evolved prior to the origin of this group.
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