Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes
age at onset
Bf complement components — DRβ
restriction fragment length polymorphism
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Summary Heterogeneity between two haplotypes in linkage disequilibrium with DR3: B8, C4AQOB1,BfS,DR3 and B18,C4A3BQO,BfF1,DR3, with regard to age at onset of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus, was investigated in 325 unrelated French patients (146 males and 179 females, age at onset 1 month to 29 years) who were genotyped for HLA-A, B, C, DR and Bf and 225 of whom were typed for the C4A, B complement components. A subgroup of 82 patients and 75 control subjects were tested for DRβ and DQβ DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism. The distribution according to age at onset and the mean ages at onset were compared between patients bearing B8, DR3 (n=58), B18,DR3 (n=62) or other DR3 haplotypes (Bx, DR3, n=70), the haplotype segments C4AQOB1.DR3 (n=41) or C4A3BQO,DR3 (n = 52) and the C4 null alleles C4AQO (N=48) or C4BQO (n=112) alone. The B8,DR3 haplotype, its smaller segment C4AQOB1,DR3 or C4AQO alone were associated with age at onset after 6 years (p〈0.01, 〈0.08 and 〈0.02 respectively); on the other hand, the B18,DR3 haplotype, its segment C4A3BQO,DR3 or C4BQO alone were significantly more frequent in patients aged less than 6 years at onset (p〈0.02, 〈0.01 and 〈0.01 respectively). Accordingly, the mean age of onset was significantly lower in the latter compared with the former patiens (p〈0.02, 〈0.02 and 〈0.01 respectively). No age-related variation was observed in BX,DR3 patients and their mean age of onset was intermediate. The observed age distributions were sex dependent: that of C4AQO was mainly observed in males, that of C4BQO in females. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis in 37 patients and 32 control subjects positive for DR3 showed distinct patterns which correlated with DR3 and/or DQW2 borne by the B8 (n=11) and the B18 (n=18) haplotypes, respectively. BX,DR3 subjects exhibited either one or the other of these patterns. In the patients, the B18 associated fragments were found in most cases; whereas the B8 associated pattern was more frequent in the control subjects. These results provide evidence that a heterogeneous genetic background associated with two subsets of DR3 and/or silent alleles of the fourth component of complement could account for differences in the clinical expression of Type 1 diabetes.
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