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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  10. Kongress für Infektionskrankheiten und Tropenmedizin (KIT 2010); 20100623-20100626; Köln; DOCINF 09-3 /20100602/
    Publication Date: 2010-06-02
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5028
    Keywords: Cicer arietinum L. ; repetitive DNA ; retrotransposable element ; satellite DNA ; in situ hybridization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three major repetitive DNA sequences were isolated from a genomic library of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and characterized with respect to their genomic organization and chromosomal localization. All repetitive elements are genus-specific and mostly located in the AT-rich pericentric heterochromatin. Two families are organized as satellite DNAs with repeat lengths of 162–168 bp (CaSat1) and 100 bp (CaSat2). CaSat1 is mainly located adjacent to the 18S rDNA clusters on chromosomes A and B, whereas CaSat2 is a major component of the pericentric heterochromatin on all chromosomes. The high abundance of these sequences in closely related species of the genus Cicer as well as their variation in structure and copy number among the annual species provide useful tools for taxonomic studies. The retrotransposon-like sequences of the third family (CaRep) display a more complex organization and are represented by two independent sets of clones (CaRep1 and CaRep2) with homology to different regions of Ty3-gypsy-like retrotransposons. They are distributed over the pericentric heterochromatin block on all chromosomes with extensions into euchromatic regions. Conserved structures within different crossability groups of related Cicer species suggest independent amplification or transposition events during the evolution of the annual species of the genus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: Key words μ- ; δ- ; κ-Opioid-Receptor ; Morphine ; Morphine-3-O-β-D-Glucuronide ; Morphine-6-O-β-D-Glucuronide ; Cerebral membranes ; In-vitro-binding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We investigated the nature of interaction of morphine-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-O-β-D-glucuronide (M6G) with opioid binding sites at the μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors (μ-OR, δ-OR and κ-OR) in cerebral membranes. Saturation binding experiments revealed a competitive interaction of M6G with all three opioid receptors. Inhibition binding experiments at the μ-OR employing combinations of morphine and M6G resulted in a rightward shift of the IC50 for morphine proportional to the M6G concentration, thus strengthening the finding of competitive interaction of M6G at the μ-opioid binding site. Data in absence and presence of M6G were included in a three-dimensional model. Compared to a model with one binding site a model with two binding sites significantly improved the fits. This might indicate that different μ-OR subtypes are involved. Hydrolysis of M6G to morphine was investigated and did not occur. Therefore the effects of M6G on binding to the μ-OR were due to M6G and not due to morphine. In contrast, M3G at the three opioid receptors was found to inhibit binding being about 300 times weaker than morphine. This effect was well explained by the amount of contaminating morphine (about 0.3%) identified by HPLC. We conclude that M6G binds to μ-, δ- and κ-OR in a competitive manner. Some of our results on the μ-OR suggest two binding sites for agonists at the μ-OR and that M6G binds to both sites. Our results suggest that the high potency of M6G as an analgesic is mediated through opioid receptors. In contrast, M3G does not interact with the μ-, δ- or κ-OR. We therefore doubt that any effect of M3G is mediated via opioid receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1912
    Keywords: µ-, δ-, κ-Opioid-Receptor ; Morphine ; Morphine-3-O-β-D-Glucuronide ; Morphine-6-O-β-D-Glucuronide ; Cerebral membranes ; In-vitro-binding
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the nature of interaction of morphine-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine6-O-β-D-glucuronide (M6G) with opioid binding sites at the µ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors (µ-OR, δ-OR and κ-OR) in cerebral membranes. Saturation binding experiments revealed a competitive interaction of M6G with all three opioid receptors. Inhibition binding experiments at the µ-OR employing combinations of morphine and M6G resulted in a rightward shift of the IC50 for morphine proportional to the M6G concentration, thus strengthening the finding of competitive interaction of M6G at the µ-opioid binding site. Data in absence and presence of M6G were included in a three-dimensional model. Compared to a model with one binding site a model with two binding sites significantly improved the fits. This might indicate that different µ-OR subtypes are involved. Hydrolysis of M6G to morphine was investigated and did not occur. Therefore the effects of M6G on binding to the μ-OR were due to M6G and not due to morphine. In contrast, M3G at the three opioid receptors was found to inhibit binding being about 300 times weaker than morphine. This effect was well explained by the amount of contaminating morphine (about 0.3%) identified by HPLC. We conclude that M6G binds to µ-, δ- and κ-OR in a competitive manner. Some of our results on the µ-OR suggest two binding sites for agonists at the μ-OR and that M6G binds to both sites. Our results suggest that the high potency of M6G as an analgesic is mediated through opioid receptors. In contrast, M3G does not interact with the µ-, δ- or κ-OR. We therefore doubt that any effect of M3G is mediated via opioid receptors.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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