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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Climbing fibers ; Inferior olive ; Brain stem
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The sources and pathways of the climbing fibers to the cerebellar posterior vermis were studied with combined electrophysiological and anatomical methods in cats. Recording from identified cerebellar Purkinje cells, monosynaptic climbing fiber (CF) responses have been obtained both for stimulation of the inferior olive (IO) and various parts of the brain stem (BS). CF responses were found to be of three types, IO only, BS only or both IO and BS. However the responses to BS stimulation were very few in number in comparison with IO or IO and BS types of responses. The latencies of the responses were shorter for the BS cases consistent with their distance from the cerebellum. A comparison of latencies and the relative responsiveness of the different area of the brain stem which were studied, indicate that part of the CF ascend through the pontine region and enter the cerebellum by way of the medium and superior peduncles. This finding is confirmed by the results of anatomical studies in which degenerating fibers were found in the molecular layer (using the Nauta technique) after lesion of the brachium pontis but not after lesions of the medial portion of the pons. Similarly, injection of radioactive leucine into the pontine nuclei failed to show any labeled fibers in the molecular layer. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was injected into localized regions of the posterior vermis after total bilateral destruction of the inferior peduncles. Large numbers of positive, marked cells were still found in the inferior olive. It is concluded that nearly all, if not all, the climbing fibers originate in the inferior olive and that they ascend to the cerebellum by way of all the peduncles.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Oculomotricity ; Abducens nucleus ; Vestibular and reticular afferents ; Ultrastructure ; Degeneration
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The origin of the synaptic boutons in the abducens nucleus was studied following lesions of the contralateral medial vestibular nucleus, the ipsilateral paramedian pontine reticular formation and the contralateral dorsomedial part of the reticular formation caudal to the abducens nucleus. Lesions in the rostral part of the contralateral medial vestibular nucleus resulted in degeneration of boutons located mainly on dendritic processes. On the other hand, lesions in both ipsilateral and contralateral reticular formations provoked degenerating terminals on the somata of the abducens neurones and on proximal dendrites in the abducens nucleus beneath the genu of the facial nerve.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Pontine nuclei ; Cerebellar nuclei ; Experimental anatomy ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Fibres passing from the intracerebellar nuclei to the pontine nuclei proper have been noted only by few students. In the present study this projection is analysed by mapping with the Nauta (1957) and Fink and Heimer (1967) methods the degeneration which occurs in the pontine nuclei following stereotactically placed electrolytic lesions in different parts of the intracerebellar nuclei in the cat. Cerebellopontine fibres come from the lateral cerebellar nucleus (NL) except its ventralmost part, and from the rostral but probably not from the caudal part of the interpositus anterior (NIA) and the interpositus posterior. The fibres end in three fairly well circumscribed regions of the pontine nuclei: a longitudinal column in the paramedian pontine nucleus, a column in the dorsolateral nucleus and one in the dorsal peduncular nucleus. Fibres from the NL as well as the NIA appear to end in all three regions, but the possibility of a more specific distribution cannot be excluded. Parts of the projection areas in the pons appear to be specific to cerebellar afferents, while other parts overlap with terminations of cerebropontine fibres, especially from SmI and SmII. The findings support the conclusions arrived at in recent studies of the cerebral corticopontine projections by P. Brodal (1968a, 1968b, 1971a, 1971 b) that the pontine nuclei are very precisely organized. The general principles in the organization of the corticopontine and cerebellopontine projections appear to be similar.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis ; Cerebellar nuclei ; Experimental anatomy ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Intensity and distribution of degeneration in the nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (N.r.t.) were mapped in silver impregnated sections following stereotactic lesions of the intracerebellar nuclei. Confirming previous results (Brodal and Szikla, 1972) fibres from the interpositus-lateralis-complex, reaching the N.r.t. by way of the crossed descending limb of the brachium conjunctivum, supply the main central part of the N.r.t. from rostral to caudal. The interpositus posterior does not appear to take part in this projection, nor do the ventralmost parts of the lateral cerebellar nucleus (NL). The caudal part of the latter appears to give off more fibres than its rostral part. Rostral and caudal parts of the interpositus anterior (NIA) appear to contribute approximately equally. Fibres from both nuclei terminate in a largely overlapping fashion in the central main regions of the N.r.t. On the whole the NIA projection is situated a little more medially than the NL projection (Fig. 8). Within both projections caudal parts of the nuclei tend to project somewhat more medially than lateral parts, especially caudally. Certain findings suggest that there may be more detailed topical relations. The organization in the cerebellar-nuclear projection onto the N.r.t. corresponds in principle to the pattern found for its other afferent contingents (especially from the cerebral cortex, Brodal and Brodal, 1971). In spite of wide overlapping there is some degree of topical order.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Abducens nucleus ; Motoneurones ; Horseradish peroxydase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The ultrastructure of cat abducens motoneurones is described, after labelling by retrograde axonal transport of horseradish peroxydase. The motoneurones were densely covered with synaptic boutons of both the “terminal” and “en passant” types and axo-axonal synapses were observed on the initial segment of motoneurone axons. Within the population of axons forming the VIth nerve, multiple branching was encountered and axons closely apposed at the nodes of Ranvier were seen.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Abducens nucleus (cat) ; Peroxidase ; Neurones ; Synapses ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Light and electron microscope studies of the abducens nucleus in the cat have disclosed two populations of neurones: large neurones 25 to 75 μm in diameter and small neurones 10 to 25 μm in diameter. Characteristic of the large neurones are a highly developed granular endoplasmic reticulum and a large number of axo-somatic synapses. The small neurones have a poorly developed granular endoplasmic reticulum and comparative by few axo-somatic synapses. Injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) into the ipsilateral lateral rectus muscle has been used to identify abducens motoneurones which represent 65% of the total number of cells in the abducens nucleus and form part of the large cell population. The remaining unlabelled large neurones (30% of the large cell population) probably represent motoneurones of the retractor bulbi muscles, abducens motoneurones which have failed to transport the HRP, and possibly internuclear neurones. The small neurones (5% of the total cell population) were never labelled by HRP. Axo-somatic and axo-dendritic synapses are numerous. Many of the synaptic terminals form contacts with two or more different postsynaptic elements. Axo-axonic synapses and synapses on the initial segments of large neurones are also present. Nodal synapses and branching of myelinated axons are common findings. Finally, extended areas of close apposition between dendritic membranes are frequently observed.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Antibodies to serotonin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Radioimmunoassay ; Antibodies specificity ; Cat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Antibodies to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were obtained from 4 rabbits after injections of 5-HT coupled to bovine serum albumin by means of paraformaldehyde (PF). Two methods were used to monitor the developement of antibodies (AB): the one based on the “in vitro” competitive binding properties of the antibodies with3(H)5-HT, the other, on their “in situ” binding properties to endogenous 5-HT, using the peroxidase-anti-peroxidase immunohistochemical technique, applied to paraffin embedded sections of cat brainstem. No pharmacological processing, detergents or proteolytic enzymes were used. The specificity of the antiserum was tested by competitive procedures with 20 analogs using the “in vitro” and “in situ” techniques. “In vitro” studies were performed with 5-HT free analogs and with analogs previously coupled with PF to lysine. Radioimmunological tests showed that the antibodies recognize mainly the ethylamine (CH2-CH2-NH2)-cham of the free analogs and that the best specificity was obtained with the 5-HT conjugate (5-HT-lysine-PF). The results suggest that the hapten is coupled through the phenolic positions C4 or C5. The “in situ” immunohistochemical extinction assays also revealed a distinct specificity for 5-HT. Possible optical and ultrastructural applications are illustrated in the raphé nuclei of the cat. These results confirm the reliability of radioimmunological tests for studying the specificity of AB directed against haptens, provided that haptens and analogs tested were first chemically transformed to resemble the immunogen (herewith lysine-PF coupling) with regard to its antigenic structure.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Various isotopomers of the free dibridged disilyne molecule, Si(H2)Si, have been observed by millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectroscopy in a silane–argon plasma produced by an abnormal electric discharge. In order to make measurement of the weak absorption lines possible a novel computer processing treatment has been developed. From the molecular constants measured for 28Si(H2)28Si, 29Si(H2)28Si, 30Si(H2)28Si, and 28Si(D2)28Si an accurate substitution structure has been deduced with rs(Si–Si)=2.2154 A(ring), rs(Si–H)=1.6680 A(ring), and (angle)(HSiSiH)=104.22°. The spectrum analysis and the structure determination have been aided by correlated level ab initio calculations resulting in accurate estimates of the equilibrium geometry and rotational constants, the cubic force field, the quartic and sextic centrifugal distortion constants, and the inversion barrier height of dibridged disilyne. The barrier to inversion of the "butterfly-type'' Si(H2)Si molecule must be relatively high as no splitting due to inversion could be experimentally observed.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    College Park, Md. : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 83 (1985), S. 3703-3705 
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0022-2852
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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