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  • 1
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  58. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie e.V. (DGNC); 20070426-20070429; Leipzig; DOCSO.06.03 /20070411/
    Publication Date: 2007-04-04
    Keywords: deep brain stimulation ; hypothalamus ; cluster headache ; Tiefe Hirnstimulation ; Hypothalamus ; Cluster Kopfschmerz ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  59. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie e.V. (DGNC), 3. Joint Meeting mit der Italienischen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie (SINch); 20080601-20080604; Würzburg; DOCDI.07.06 /20080530/
    Publication Date: 2008-05-30
    Keywords: deep brain stimulation ; globus pallidus internus ; childhood-onset dystonia ; Tiefe Hirnstimulation ; Dystonie ; Kinder ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We investigate the relationship between the extensor electromyogram (EMG) and tremor time series in physiological hand tremor by cross-spectral analysis. Special attention is directed to the phase spectrum and the effects of observational noise. We calculate the theoretical phase spectrum for a second-order linear stochastic process and compare the results to measured tremor data recorded from subjects who did not show a synchronized EMG activity in the corresponding extensor muscle. The results show that physiological tremor is well described by the proposed model and that the measured EMG represents a Newtonian force by which the muscle acts on the hand.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We investigated the relationship between synchronized muscle activity and tremor time series in (enhanced) physiological tremor by cross-spectral analysis. Special attention was directed to the phase spectrum and its potential to clarify the contribution of reflex mechanisms to physiological tremor. The phase spectra are investigated assuming that the electromyogram (EMG) synchronization was caused by a reflex or a central oscillator. Comparing these results to phase spectra of measured data, we found a significant contribution of reflexes. But reflexes only modify existing peaks in the power spectrum. The main agents of physiological tremor are an efferent pace and the resonant behavior of the biomechanical system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Long latency reflexes ; Transcranial stimulation ; Physiology ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The interaction of transcranial electric and magnetic brain stimulation with electrically elicited shortand long latency reflexes (LLR) of hand and fore-arm flexor muscles has been investigated in normal subjects. In the first paradigm, the motor potential evoked in thenar muscles by transcranial stimulation was conditioned by median nerve stimulation at various conditioning-test intervals. At short intervals (electric: 5–12.5 ms, magnetic: 0–7.5 ms) facilitation occurred that corresponded to the H-reflex and at longer intervals (electric: 25–40 ms, magnetic: 22.5–35 ms) there was a facilitation corresponding to the LLR. Electric and magnetic stimulation resulted in a similar degree of facilitation. A second paradigm investigated the facilitation of the forearm flexor H-reflex by a cutaneo-muscular LLR elicited by radial superficial nerve stimulation and transcranial stimulation used separately or together. When electric and magnetic brain stimulation were compared, magnetic brain stimulation was followed by significant extrafacilitation but electric stimulation was not. This result favours an interaction between the afferent volley eliciting the LLR and transcranial magnetic stimulation most likely at supraspinal level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1106
    Keywords: Cutaneous reflexes ; Long-Latency reflexes ; Precision grip ; Human
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Hand muscle reflexes following muscle stretch and electrical nerve stimulation show a typical pattern consisting of short- and long-latency reflexes. The present investigation was designed to test reflexes following pure cutaneous stimulation. Air puffs were delivered to the palmar tip and the nail bed of the first, second and fifth fingers during isotonic contraction of hand muscles. The EMGs from the thenar muscles, the first dorsal interosseous muscle and the hypothenar muscles were recorded. Reflexes were obtained in all muscles, with a typical configuration consisting of a short-latency excitatory component (cutaneous longlatency reflex I, cLLR I) and a second excitatory component (cutaneous long-latency reflex II, cLLR II), with an inhibitory component between them. The size of cLLR II differed depending on the area stimulated and the muscle recorded. We found the largest responses always in the muscle acting on the stimulated finger. The reflex size depended on the strength of air puff stimulation. Allowing small displacements of the fingers led to an additional increase in the size of the reflex. The pattern of reflexes was identical independent of whether the finger tip or the nail bed was stimulated, but the size of the reflexes was smaller following nail bed stimulation. Following blockade of the cutaneous nerve branches of the thumb with local anaesthetics, air puff stimulation of the thumb no longer elicited this reflex pattern. Hence, under our experimental conditions, cutaneous receptors were the only source of afferent input for these reflexes. The results suggest that these cutaneous reflexes are mainly dedicated to controlling the stimulated finger independent of whether the palmar tip or the nail bed is stimulated. A possible physiological function is the adapting of grip force during handling of delicate objects if a perturbation is applied either to the object or the hand.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Neuroborreliose ; Zerebrale Vaskulitis ; Thalamusinfarkt ; Key words Neuroborreliosis ; Cerebral vasculitis ; Thalamic infarction
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary A 20-year-old man without vascular risk factors presented with paraesthesia of the left side of the body with acute onset. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging showed an infarction in the right thalamus. Intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography revealed stenosis of the right thalamic vessels. Recent infection by Borrelia burgdorferi was demonstrated by typical findings in the cerebrospinal fluid: lymphocytic pleocytosis and intrathecal synthesis of borrelial-specific antibodies. The diagnosis of a borrelial-induced vasculitis with secondary thalamic infarction was made from these findings. After antibiotic treatment with cefrtriaxone, the patient was discharged without residual complaints.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bei einem 20jährigen Mann ohne Gefäßrisikofaktoren war es zum akuten Auftreten von Parästhesien der linken Körperhälfte gekommen. Die zerebrale Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zeigte einen Thalamusinfarkt rechts. Die intraarterielle digitale Subrationsangiographie (DSA) erbrachte Hinweise für eine Stenosierung thalamischer Gefäße rechts. Eine Borrelia-burgdorferi-Infektion konnte durch typische Liquorbefunde (lymphozytäre Pleozytose, intrathekale Synthese borrelienspezifischer Antikörper) nachgewiesen werden. Gestützt auf diese Befunde wurde die Diagnose einer borrelien-induzierte Vaskulitis mit sekundärem Thalamusinfarkt gestellt. Nach Durchführung einer antibiotischen Behandlung mit Ceftriaxon konnte der Patient ohne neurologische Auffälligkeiten entlassen werden.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-0407
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Bewegungsstörungen ; M. Parkinson ; Stereotaxie ; Tremor ; Hirnstimulation ; Key words Stereotactic surgery ; Parkinson’s disease ; Movement disorders ; Thalamotomy ; Pallidotomy ; Brain ; Stimulation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Stereotactic surgery for movement disorders is currently undergoing a re-evaluation. A new understanding of the pathophysiology makes the surgical lesion a logical step for the aleviation of both hyperkinetic symptoms such as tremor and hypokinetic symptoms like bradykinesia. Advances in imaging and electrophysiological control render these procedures more accurate and safer. Indications are medically refractory, Parkinsonean tremor, essential tremor, cerebellar tremor, bradykinesia and L-Dopa induced dyskinesis. The standard procedure is ablative surgery, i.e. thalamotomy for tremors and pallidotomy for bradykinesia, dystonia and L-Dopa induced dyskinesias. Deep brain stimulation is a novel alternative for selected patients which is currently evaluated. Neural transplantation of autologus, fetal or genetically manipulated cell suspensions into the striatum for the time being is experimental.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die chirurgische, d.h. stereotaktische Behandlung von Bewegungsstörungen erfährt derzeit eine Neubewertung. Neue Einsichten in die Pathophysiologie der Bewegungsstörungen haben dazu geführt, daß der stereotaktische Eingriff als begründeter therapeutischer Schritt angesehen wird. Die Nebenwirkungen stereotaktischer Eingriffe sind durch neue operative Techniken, digitale Bildgebung und elektrophysiologische Kontrollen geringer geworden. Die hauptsächlichen Indikationen sind Parkinson-Tremor und Rigidität, essentieller Tremor und zerebellärer Tremor. Als etablierte Routinemethode wird die stereotaktische Elektrokoagulation im Thalamus für alle Tremorformen weiterhin bevorzugt. Für die Behandlung von Akinesie und Bradykinesie, besonders auch der Dopa-induzierten Hyperkinesien, gewinnt die Pallidotomie rasch wieder an Bedeutung. Die chronische Stimulation durch Implantation von Hirnelektroden ist in Einzelfällen indiziert. Die Transplantation autologer, fetaler oder gentechnisch manipulierter Zellen wird derzeit in ihrer Bedeutung für die Therapie untersucht.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia ; Kearns-Sayre syndrome ; Mitochondrial DNA deletion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions have been found in the majority of patients with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia and Kearns-Sayre syndrome. A large number of different mtDNA deletions have been identified. They generally spare the two origins of replication and are frequently flanked by direct or indirect repeats. We have found a 3.1-kb deletion of mtDNA in a patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome that has some unusual features. First, it encompasses nucleotides 11259 to 14368, a localization that was not described before. Second, the deletion is not flanked by direct or indirect repeats, supporting the view that homologous recombination and slip-replication do not account for all mtDNA deletions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1364-6753
    Keywords: Keywords: Dopa-responsive dystonia, DRD, HPD, GCH1, GTP cyclohydrolase I, splicing mutation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: ABSTRACT We describe two previously unrecognized splice site mutations of GCH1 in Dopa responsive dystonia (DRD). Both mutations affect consensus splice acceptor (AG) sites. The first mutation is an A→G transition at position -2 of intron 1 of GCH1. This mutation results in skipping of exon 2. Fusion of exons 1 and 3 causes a frame shift that generates a premature stop codon. The second mutation is an A→G transition at position -2 of intron 2. The mutation generates a new splice acceptor site AG one base pair upstream of the wild-type splice site. This, together with a pyrimidine stretch upstream of the new splice site, renders this site functional and generates a transcript with the insertion of one base, i.e. the G of the wild-type splice site. This in turn causes a frame shift including the introduction of a premature stop codon. The two different mutations generate truncated GTP cyclohydrolase polypeptides.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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