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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; TYROSINE KINASE ; screening ; SITE ; SITES ; DISTINCT ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; primary ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; FREQUENCY ; FREQUENCIES ; STAGE ; PROGRESSION ; immunohistochemistry ; ABERRATIONS ; HEAD ; ONCOPROTEIN ; CARCINOMAS ; NECK ; squamous cell carcinoma ; GREECE ; gene amplification ; head and neck ; laryngeal carcinoma ; OROPHARYNGEAL ; C-MYC ; CANCER PATIENTS ; CYCLIN D1 OVEREXPRESSION ; cytogenetic aberration ; head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) ; immunohistochemistry (IHC) ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; oncoprotein overexpression ; OVEREXPRESSION ; POOR-PROGNOSIS ; tissue microarray (TMA) ; tumor classification
    Abstract: Background: Tissue microarray (TMA) analysis is a high-throughput approach that allows the screening of large tumor collectives for cytogenetic aberrations. In this study, a TMA of a large collection of clinically well-defined primary squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCC) was used to determine the expression of several oncoproteins. Materials and Methods: A TMA containing 547 primary HNSCC was used for the analysis of cyclinD1, c-myc, erbb1 and erbb2 expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: CyclinD1 and c-myc were overexpressed at higher frequencies in primary pharyngeal and laryngeal carcinomas compared with primary oral carcinomas (p 〈 0.001 and p 〈 0.001), while erbb1 and erbb2 overexpression was associated with oral site (p 〈 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively). Furthermore, cyclinD1 overexpression correlated with stage IV primary carcinomas (p = 0.04). Conclusion: HNSCC is a heterogenous group of tumors, which, depending on anatomic sites and clinical stage, shows variable expressions of the oncoproteins described. This indicates a specific pathogenic role of these oncoproteins in different subtypes of HNSCC and may have therapeutic implications
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 14666705
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  • 2
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; KINASE ; TYROSINE KINASE ; GENE ; HYBRIDIZATION ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR ; IN-SITU ; immunohistochemistry ; NUMBER ; PATHOGENESIS ; FISH ; MUTATIONS ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; HEAD ; NECK ; PREVALENCE ; FLUORESCENCE ; OVEREXPRESSION ; imatinib ; fluorescence in situ hybridization ; GAINS ; C-KIT ; ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA ; GASTROINTESTINAL STROMAL TUMORS ; INHIBITORS ; in situ hybridization ; salivary gland tumor ; AMPLIFICATIONS ; GLAND ; intensity ; SUBTYPE ; TUMOR TISSUE ; KINASE INHIBITORS ; SUBTYPES ; KIT ; tissue microarray ; tissue microarray analysis
    Abstract: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary gland is characterized by a prolonged but inevitably unfavorable clinical course. Recent studies suggested the transmembrane tyrosine kinase KIT to be involved in ACC pathogenesis. To investigate KIT expression in histologically defined subgroups of ACC and to clarify whether KIT gene copy number gain contributes to KIT overexpression, tumor tissue microarray sections including 55 ACC tumors were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). The prevalence of positive KIT immunostaining was 89% (49/55). Strong immunostaining of KIT was only found in cribriform and tubular but never in solid subtypes (p = 0.02). Average KIT staining intensity was higher in cribriform and tubular (n = 37) compared to solid (n = 18) ACC subtypes (p = 0.005). FISH analysis revealed copy number gains of the KIT gene in 6.1% (3/49) of tumors analyzed. Our results implicate that specific KIT tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib, might be used in future therapeutic approaches against subgroups of ACC. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16054424
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  • 3
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; proliferation ; carcinoma ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; PATHWAY ; DISTINCT ; GENE ; GENES ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; SKIN ; IN-SITU ; AMPLIFICATION ; COPY NUMBER ; immunohistochemistry ; NUMBER ; MUTATIONS ; ONCOGENE ; HUMAN HOMOLOG ; HEAD ; PREVALENCE ; PRECURSORS ; EFFECTOR ; basal cell carcinoma ; N-MYC ; CELL CARCINOMA ; SUBSET ; fluorescence in situ hybridisation ; LOCUS ; tissue microarray ; NMYC ; HUMAN NEUROBLASTOMA ; SPECIMENS
    Abstract: Formation of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been linked to deregulation in the sonic hedgehogh (Shh) signalling pathway. Though mutations of the genes, PTCHI and SMO, are known to be involved in aberrant Shh signalling, the distinct downstream effectors of these genes are poorly described. Studies have indicated that the NMYC oncogene is a potential Shh downstream effector. To assess the expression of Nmyc protein and gene copy numbers of the NMYC gene locus in a representative BCC tumour collection, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) were performed on 273 BCC specimens of different growth patterns and anatomic localisations on tissue microarray (TMA) sections. High Nmyc protein expression was detected in 72.7% (160/220) of all BCC specimens. Strong Nmyc immunopositivity was more frequently found in infiltrative BCCs compared to nodular/superficial BCCs (p=0.005), and in BCCs of the head compared to BCCs of other anatomic localisations (p=0.021). The prevalence of NMYC copy number gains was 17.5% (37/211), including three tumours with nodular differentiation that exhibited a distinct high-level amplification of the NMYC locus. These data indicate that high expression of the Shh downstream mediator, Nmyc, is a frequent event in BCC, predominantly in more aggressive subtypes. Although the NMYC copy number gain found in a subset of cases might contribute to this aberrant Nmyc protein expression by a gene dosage effect, our data suggests that Nmyc protein can also be induced by aberrant Shh signalling, acting as an effector molecule of the Shh pathway. Novel systemic anti-sense NMYC inhibition strategies could be a promising option for therapy-refractory BCC
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16596176
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  • 4
    Keywords: brain ; APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; IN-VITRO ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; tumor ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; INHIBITION ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; THERAPY ; VITRO ; EXPOSURE ; GENE ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; RNA ; DIFFERENTIATION ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; mechanisms ; BIOLOGY ; ACID ; TARGET ; PROGRESSION ; AMPLIFICATION ; ASSAY ; PROMOTER ; genetics ; ONCOGENE ; STEM-CELLS ; PROGENITOR CELLS ; CANCER-THERAPY ; GLIOMAS ; RETINOIC ACID ; TRANS-RETINOIC ACID ; INHIBITORS ; signaling ; ONCOLOGY ; GLIOMA ; GLIOMA-CELLS ; MOLECULAR-MECHANISMS ; LOCUS ; GLIOBLASTOMA ; MicroRNAs ; MICRORNA ; CELL BIOLOGY ; TUMOR-INITIATING CELLS ; Genetic ; tumor grade ; Molecular mechanisms ; CTGF ; miR-17-92 ; NEURAL PRECURSORS ; spheroid culture
    Abstract: All-trans retinoic acid is a potent promoter of cellular differentiation processes, which is used in cancer therapy. Glioblastoma spheroid cultures are enriched in tumor-initiating cells, and provide a model to test new treatment options in vitro. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of response to exposure to differentiation-promoting conditions in such cultures. Microarray analyses of five independent cultures showed that after induction of differentiation, inhibitors of transforming growth factor beta/bone morphogenetic protein, Wnt/beta-catenin and IGF signaling were upregulated, whereas expression of several microRNAs decreased, particularly that of the miR-17-92 cluster. In primary astrocytic gliomas (n = 82), expression of several members of miR-17-92 was significantly higher relative to those of normal brain (n = 8) and significantly increased with tumor grade progression (P 〈 0.05). A high-level amplification of the miR-17-92 locus was detected in one glioblastoma specimen. Transfection of inhibitors of miR-17-92 induced increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in glioblastoma spheroids. Mir-17-92 inhibition was also associated with increased messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein expression of CDKN1A, E2F1, PTEN and CTGF. The CTGF gene was shown to be a target of miR-17-92 in glioblastoma spheroids by luciferase reporter assays. Our results suggest that miR-17-92 and its target CTGF mediate effects of differentiation-promoting treatment on glioblastoma cells through multiple regulatory pathways. Oncogene (2010) 29, 3411-3422; doi:10.1038/onc.2010.83; published online 22 March 2010
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20305691
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  • 5
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Medulloblastoma is the most common malignant brain tumor in children. Current treatment decisions are based on clinical variables. Novel tumor-derived biomarkers may improve the risk stratification of medulloblastoma patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A model for the molecular risk stratification was proposed from an array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) screen (n = 80). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses for chromosome arms 6q, 17p, and 17q and the MYC and MYCN loci were performed in an independent validation set (n = 260). Copy number aberrations were correlated with clinical, histologic, and survival data. RESULTS: Gain of 6q and 17q and genomic amplification of MYC or MYCN were each associated with poor outcome in the array-CGH study (n = 80). In contrast, all patients with 6q-deleted tumors survived. Given these findings, the following hierarchical molecular staging system was defined: (1) MYC/MYCN amplification, (2) 6q gain, (3) 17q gain, (4) 6q and 17q balanced, and (5) 6q deletion. The prognostic value of this staging system was investigated by FISH analysis (n = 260). The addition of molecular markers to clinical risk factors resulted in the identification of a large proportion of patients (72 of 260 patients; 30%) at high risk for relapse and death who would be considered standard risk by application of clinical variables alone. CONCLUSION: Genomic aberrations in medulloblastoma are powerful independent markers of disease progression and survival. By adding genomic markers to established clinical and histologic variables, outcome prediction can be substantially improved. Because the analyses can be conducted on routine paraffin-embedded material, it will be especially feasible to use this novel molecular staging system in large multicenter clinical trials.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19255330
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  • 6
    Abstract: Chromothripsis is a recently discovered form of genomic instability, characterized by tens to hundreds of clustered DNA rearrangements resulting from a single dramatic event. Telomere dysfunction has been suggested to play a role in the initiation of this phenomenon, which occurs in a large number of tumor entities. Here, we show that telomere attrition can indeed lead to catastrophic genomic events, and that telomere patterns differ between cells analyzed before and after such genomic catastrophes. Telomere length and telomere stabilization mechanisms diverge between samples with and without chromothripsis in a given tumor subtype. Longitudinal analyses of the evolution of chromothriptic patterns identify either stable patterns between matched primary and relapsed tumors, or loss of the chromothriptic clone in the relapsed specimen. The absence of additional chromothriptic events occurring between the initial tumor and the relapsed tumor sample points to telomere stabilization after the initial chromothriptic event which prevents further shattering of the genome.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26856307
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  • 7
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CANCER ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; INHIBITOR ; proliferation ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; CELL-PROLIFERATION ; Germany ; human ; MODEL ; HEPATOCELLULAR-CARCINOMA ; GENE ; GENES ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; transcription ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; LIGAND ; DNA ; MECHANISM ; TRANSPLANTATION ; BINDING ; cell cycle ; CELL-CYCLE ; CYCLE ; TARGET ; virus ; ELEMENT ; MOUSE ; hepatocellular carcinoma ; YEAST ; CELL-DEATH ; RESECTION ; sensitivity ; TARGETS ; C-MYC ; OVEREXPRESSION ; REPRESSION ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; BINDING PROTEIN ; INHIBITORS ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; regulation ; cell proliferation ; LEVEL ; SCREEN ; USA ; NECROSIS ; C-MYC EXPRESSION ; TFIIH
    Abstract: We identified the far upstream element binding protein 1 (FBP1), an activator of transcription of the proto-oncogene c-myc, in a functional yeast survival screen for tumor-related antiapoptotic proteins and demonstrated strong overexpression of FBP1 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Knockdown of the protein in HCC cells resulted in increased sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli, reduced cell proliferation, and impaired tumor formation in a mouse xenograft transplantation model. Interestingly, analysis of gene regulation in these cells revealed that c-myc levels were not influenced by FBP1 in HCC cells. Instead, we identified the cell cycle inhibitor p21 as a direct target gene repressed by FBP1, and in addition, expression levels of the proapoptotic genes tumor necrosis factor a, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, Noxa, and Bik were elevated in the absence of FBP1. Conclusion: Our data establish FBP1 as an important oncoprotein overexpressed in HCC that induces tumor propagation through direct or indirect repression of cell cycle inhibitors and proapoptotic target genes. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;50:1121-1129.)
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19637194
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  • 8
    Abstract: Recent developments in sequencing technologies led to the discovery of a novel form of genomic instability, termed chromothripsis. This catastrophic genomic event, involved in tumorigenesis, is characterized by tens to hundreds of simultaneously acquired locally clustered rearrangements on one chromosome. We hypothesized that leukemias developing in individuals with Ataxia Telangiectasia, who are born with two mutated copies of the ATM gene, an essential guardian of genome stability, would show a higher prevalence of chromothripsis due to the associated defect in DNA double-strand break repair. Using whole-genome sequencing, fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing, we characterized the genomic landscape of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) arising in patients with Ataxia Telangiectasia. We detected a high frequency of chromothriptic events in these tumors, specifically on acrocentric chromosomes, as compared with tumors from individuals with other types of DNA repair syndromes (27 cases total, 10 with Ataxia Telangiectasia). Our data suggest that the genomic landscape of Ataxia Telangiectasia ALL is clearly distinct from that of sporadic ALL. Mechanistically, short telomeres and compromised DNA damage response in cells of Ataxia Telangiectasia patients may be linked with frequent chromothripsis. Furthermore, we show that ATM loss is associated with increased chromothripsis prevalence in additional tumor entities.Leukemia advance online publication, 14 March 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.55.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28196983
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  • 9
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; carcinoma ; Germany ; PATHWAYS ; SITE ; HYBRIDIZATION ; microarray ; TISSUE ; primary ; IN-SITU ; PROGRESSION ; AMPLIFICATION ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; metastases ; LOCALIZATION ; HEAD ; NECK ; squamous cell carcinoma ; PREVALENCE ; DNA AMPLIFICATION ; FLUORESCENCE ; gene amplification ; head and neck ; IMBALANCES ; laryngeal carcinoma ; OROPHARYNGEAL
    Abstract: Fluorescence in situ hybridization was applied on a collection of 609 squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (HNSCCs), including 511 primary carcinomas of different clinical stage and anatomical localization and 98 recurrent carcinomas, second primary carcinomas, and regional metastases on a tissue microarray. The overall prevalence of amplifications of five oncogenes analyzed was 34.5% for CCND1, 12.7% for EGFR, 8.8% for MYC, 6.2% for ZNF217, and 3.6% for ERBB2. CCND1 amplifications were associated with the pharyngeal site in primary carcinomas (P 〈 0.001), whereas amplifications of ZNF217 were less frequent in pharyngeal carcinomas as compared with primary oral and laryngeal carcinomas (P = 0.02). The amplification pattern of these oncogenes suggests that different molecular pathways are involved in HNSCCs of different localizations
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 12649172
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  • 10
    Keywords: tumor ; carcinoma ; Germany ; HYBRIDIZATION ; microarray ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; TISSUE ; TUMORS ; ACTIVATION ; CELL-LINES ; chromosome ; BREAST-CANCER ; IDENTIFICATION ; IN-SITU ; PROGRESSION ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; NUMBER ; METASTASIS ; PATHOGENESIS ; TUMOR-SUPPRESSOR GENE ; REGION ; PROBES ; PREVALENCE ; RECURRENT ; FLUORESCENCE ; MICROARRAY ANALYSIS ; GAINS ; CHROMOSOMAL IMBALANCES ; ADENOID CYSTIC CARCINOMA ; in situ hybridization ; TUMORIGENESIS ; GLAND ; SCREEN ; LYMPHOMAS ; DERMATOFIBROSARCOMA PROTUBERANS ; ELEVATED EXPRESSION ; MENINGIOMAS
    Abstract: Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the salivary gland is a neoplasm characterized by slow but inevitable local progression and terminal hematogenous metastasis. To detect novel imbalanced chromosomal regions associated with tumorigenesis, we used chromosomal comparative genomic hybridization to screen 27 ACC. The most common aberration was copy number gain of 22q13 (nine cases) followed by gains of 16p (seven cases) and 17q (four cases) and copy number losses on 6q (six cases). To further delineate the prevalence of 22q13 copy number gains in ACC, fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed for five bacterial/phage artificial chromosome (BAC/PAC) probes from the 22q13 consensus region with 57 ACC on a tissue microarray. The overall prevalence of copy number gains on 22q13 was 30% of the tumors in the fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, irrespective of histologic differentiation (cribriform/tubular vs. solid) or tumor event (primary vs. recurrent). We therefore assume that copy number gain of 22q13 is a novel frequent finding in ACC that may be involved in the initial pathogenesis of this neoplasm by protooncogene activation. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15860365
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