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  • 1
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0001-1541
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Electrophoresis of a solute through a column in which its transport is governed by the convection - diffusion equation is described. Approximate solutions to the convection - diffusion equation in the limit of small diffusion are developed using perturbation methods. The diffusion coefficient and velocity are assumed to be functions of space and time such that both undergo a sudden change from one constant value to another within a thin transition zone that itself translates with a constant velocity. Two cases are considered: (1) the thickness ∊f of the transition zone is negligible compared to the diffusional length scale, so the zone may be treated as a singular boundary across which the diffusion constant and velocity suffer discontinuous changes; (2) the transition zone is considerably wider than the diffusional length scale, so the diffusion coefficient and velocity, although sharply varying, are smooth functions of position and time. A systematic perturbation expansion of the concentration distribution is presented for case 1 in terms of the small parameter ∊ = 1/Pe. A lowest order approximation is given for case 2. A suitably configured system analyzed here can lead to progressive accumulation, or focusing, of the transported solute. The degree of focusing in case 1 scales with ∊-1, whereas in case 2 it scales with (∊f∊)-1/2, and thus increases much more weakly with increasing Pe. A separation based on this concept requires development of materials and devices that allow dynamic tuning of the mass-transport properties of a medium. This would make it possible to achieve progressive focusing and separation of solutes, such as proteins and DNA fragments, in electrophoretic media with an unprecedented degree of control.
    Additional Material: 8 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: endothelium ; genetic expression ; protein synthesis ; shear stress ; signal transduction ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Mammalian cells responds to physical forces by altering their growth rate, morphology, metabolism, and genetic expression. We have studied the mechanism by which these cells detect the presence of mechanical stress and convert this force into intracellular signals. As our model systems, we have studied cultured human endothelial cells, which line the blood vessels and forms the interface between the blood and the vessel wall. These cell responds within minutes to the initiation of flow by increasing their arachidonic acid metabolism and increasing the level of the intracellular second messengers inositol trisphosphate and calcium ion concentration. With continued exposure to arterial levels of wall shear stress for up to 24 h, endothelial cells increase the expression of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and tPA messenger RNA (mRNA) and decrease the expression of endothelin peptide and endothelin mRNA. Since the initiation of flow also causes enhanced convective mass transfer to the endothelial cell monolayer, we have investigated the role of enhanced convection of adenosine trisphosphate (ATP) to the cell surface in eliciting a cellular response by monitoring cytosolic calcium concentrations on the single cell level and by computing the concentration profile of ATP in a parallel-plate flow geometry. Our result demonstrate that endothelial cells respond in very specific ways to the initiation of flow and that mass transfer and fluid shear stress can both play a role in the modulation of intracellular signal transduction and metabolism.
    Additional Material: 9 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-8757
    Keywords: liquid crystals ; moving bed system ; simulation ; purification
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract We investigate convective-diffusive transport of a solute through a medium with properties that can be externally modulated in space and time. In particular, we focus on the effect of a front—a sharp transition in the convective velocity (v) and diffusivity (D)—on the evolution of the solute concentration profile. Numerical results show that by suitably moving the front during the process an anti-dispersive effect may be realized, in which the solute accumulates in a thin region close to the moving boundary. Our computations take into account the realistic case of a front having a small but finite thickness, and we find that the width of the concentration profile scales as $$\left( {1/\sqrt {Pe} } \right)$$ , where Pe is the Péclet number. This is in sharp contrast to the 1/Pe scaling observed for the ideal case of the singular front assumed in previous work. The effect of the thickness of the front and the magnitude of the drop inv andD, on the solute concentration profile has also been studied. These results are relevant in order to implement and optimize protocols that apply an externally controlled moving boundary for the purpose of separation. We also present experimental results characterizing solute transport across a stationary front, expected to display many features needed in a model for moving fronts. The concentration profile of electrophoretically mobile BSA-FITC within the boundary layer at a polyacrylamde gel-buffer interface were visualized by epifluorescence microscopy. Measured boundary layer thickness exceeded that predicted for even a finite interface, indicating that the length scale associated with real boundaries is relevant to the modeling problem.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluid shear stress can stimulate secretion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by cultured human endothelial cells, while plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 secretion remains unstimulated. To determine whether hemodynamically induced changes in tPA messenger RNA (mRNA) levels also occur, primary cultures from the same harvst of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were either maintained in stationary culture or exposed to arterial levels of shear stress (25 dynes/cm2) for 24 hours. Total cellular RNA was isolated from the shear stressed and stationary cultures and the relative levels of tPA mRNA and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA were determined using a coupled reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction method. As indicated by the amount of amplification product, tPA mRNA levels were many fold higher (〉 10) in endothelial cells subjected to shear stress for 24 hours than in stationary controls. In contrast, mRNA levels for GAPDH were similar in control and shear stressed cells. The constancy of the measured GAPDH signal indicated that the tPA response was a selective effect of fluid shear stress. When a similar polymerase chain reaction method was used, the mRNA levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were found not to vary in comparison to GAPDH mRNA after 24 hours of shear stress. These results indicate that enhancement of the fibrinolytic potential of endothelial cells in response to hemodynamic forces could involve transcriptional events.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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