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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2427
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: 1. Variation in depth of the mixed surface layer of temperate lakes should affect phytoplankton dynamics because, with increasing mixing depth, average light intensity in and specific sedimentation losses out of the mixed layer both decrease.2. Our aim was to test a recent dynamic model which relates phytoplankton biomass and the availability of production-limiting resources (light and dissolved mineral nutrients) to mixing depth and nutrient supply from external sources.3. During summer stratification we sampled the mixed layers of 30 dimictic, phosphorus-limited, oligo- to mesotrophic, mostly non-humic lakes north of the Alps.4. The results agree well qualitatively with model expectations. Algal concentration in the mixed layer was negatively related to mixing depth or its surrogate log-transformed lake area. Light intensity at the bottom of the mixed layer decreased whereas the concentration of available, inorganic phosphorus increased with increasing mixing depth. Across all depths, higher total phosphorus content was accompanied by higher phytoplankton biomass, lower light availability, and higher inorganic phosphorus concentration.5. Our data match the predicted shift with increasing mixing depth from predominantly nutrient limitation towards increased light limitation of algal biomass.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Oecologia 98 (1994), S. 344-353 
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Piscivore-prev interactions ; Prey refuge ; Predator search mode ; Size-specific prey vulnerability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In predator-prey interactions, the efficiency of the predator is dependent on characteristics of both the predator and the prey, as well as the structure of the environment. In a field enclosure experiment, we tested the effects of a prey refuge on predator search mode, predator efficiency and prey behaviour. Replicated enclosures containing young of the year (0+) and 1-year-old (1+) perch were stocked with 3 differentially sized individuals of either of 2 piscivorous species, perch (Perca fluviatilis), pike (Esox lucius) or no piscivorous predators. Each enclosure contained an open predator area with three small vegetation patches, and a vegetated absolute refuge for the prey. We quantified the behaviour of the predators and the prey simultaneously, and at the end of the experiment the growth of the predators and the mortality and habitat use of the prey were estimated. The activity mode of both predator species was stationary. Perch stayed in pairs in the vegetation patches whereas pike remained solitary and occupied the corners of the enclosure. The largest pike individuals stayed closest to the prey refuge whereas the smallest individuals stayed farthest away from the prey refuge, indicating size-dependent interference among pike. Both size classes of prey showed stronger behavioural responses to pike than to perch with respect to refuge use, distance from refuge and distance to the nearest predator. Prey mortality was higher in the presence of pike than in the presence of perch. Predators decreased in body mass in all treatments, and perch showed a relatively stronger decrease in body mass than pike during the experiment. Growth differences of perch and pike, and mortality differences of prey caused by predation, can be explained by predator morphology, predator attack efficiency and social versus interference behaviour of the predators. These considerations suggest that pike are more efficient piscivores around prey refuges such as the littoral zones of lakes, whereas perch have previously been observed to be more efficient in open areas, such as in the pelagic zones of lakes.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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