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  • 1
    Keywords: CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; PATHWAY ; SYSTEM ; SYSTEMS ; liver ; EFFICIENCY ; MICE ; ACTIVATION ; IFN-GAMMA ; INDUCTION ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T-CELL ; T-CELLS ; TOLERANCE ; BONE-MARROW ; MATURATION ; knockout ; MOUSE ; LINE ; DEGRADATION ; IMMUNITY ; NAIVE ; CYTOTOXICITY ; CROSS-PRESENTATION ; endothelial cells ; PH ; development ; KNOCKOUT MICE ; CYTOKINE PRODUCTION ; CELL TOLERANCE ; dendritic cell ; INDUCE ; T cell tolerance ; KUPFFER CELLS ; ADOPTIVE TRANSFER ; CD8 T cell tolerance ; ENDOTOXIN ; oral tolerance ; scavenger endothelial cells
    Abstract: After ingestion, oral antigens distribute systemically and provoke T cell stimulation outside the gastrointestinal tract. Within the liver, scavenger liver simisoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) eliminate blood-borne antigens and induce T cell tolerance. Here we investigated whether LSEC contribute to oral tolerance. Oral antigens were efficiently cross-presented on H-2k(b) by LSEC to naive CD8 T cells. Cross-presentation efficiency in LSEC but not dendritic cells was increased by antigen-exposure to heat or low pH. Mechanistically, cross-presentation in LSEC requires endosomal maturation, involves hsc73 and proteasomal degradation. H-2k(b)-restricted cross-presentation of oral antigens by LSEC in vivo induced CD8 T cell priming and led to development of CD8 T cell tolerance in two independent experimental systems. Adoptive transfer of LSEC from mice fed with antigen (ovalbumin) into RAG2(-/-) knockout mice, previously reconstituted with naive ovalbumin-specific CD8 T cells, prevented development of specific cytotoxicity and expression of IFN-gamma in CD8 T cells. Using a new transgenic mouse line expressing H-2k(b) only on endothelial cells, we have demonstrated that oral antigen administration leads to tolerance in H-2K(b)-restricted CD8 T cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate a participation of the liver, in particular scavenger LSEC, in development of CD8 T cell tolerance towards oral antigens
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16163670
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; carcinoma ; CELL ; Germany ; human ; DISEASE ; PROTEIN ; PROTEINS ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; ACTIVATION ; LIGAND ; RESPONSES ; INFECTION ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; BINDING ; RECOGNITION ; ACID ; antibodies ; antibody ; PARTICLES ; TARGET ; virus ; NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA ; MELANOMA ; LIGANDS ; NATURAL-KILLER-CELLS ; NK cells ; NKG2D ; SIALIC-ACID ; INTERFERON ; melanoma cells ; RECEPTORS ; CYTOTOXICITY ; APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND ; GAMMA ; MELANOMA-CELLS ; HEPARAN-SULFATE ; Newcastle disease virus ; USA ; macrophage ; ANTITUMOR VACCINATION ; NECROSIS ; paramyxovirus ; virology ; MODIFIED TUMOR-CELLS ; CYTOTOXICITY RECEPTORS ; NATURAL-KILLER-CELL ; NKG2D ligands ; PARTICLE ; CYTOMEGALOVIRUS UL16 GLYCOPROTEIN ; INFECTED CELLS ; INTRACELLULAR RETENTION ; KILLER-CELL ; natural killer cell
    Abstract: The avian paramyxovirus Newcastle disease virus (NDV) selectively replicates in tumor cells and is known to stimulate T-cell-, macrophage-, and NK cell-mediated responses. The mechanisms of NK cell activation by NDV are poorly understood so far. We studied the expression of ligand structures for activating NK cell receptors on NDV-infected tumor cells. Upon infection with the nonlytic NDV strain Ulster and the lytic strain MTH-68/H, human carcinoma and melanoma cells showed enhanced expression of ligands for the natural cytotoxicity receptors NKp44 and NKp46, but not NKp30. Ligands for the activating receptor NKG2D were partially downregulated. Soluble NKp44-Fc and NKp46-Fc, but not NKp30-Fc, chimeric proteins bound specifically to NDV-infected tumor cells and to NDV particle-coated plates. Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) of the virus serves as a ligand structure for NKp44 and NKp46, as indicated by the blockade of binding to NDV-infected cells and viral particles in the presence of anti-HN antibodies and by binding to cells transfected with HN cDNA. Consistent with the recognition of sialic acid moieties by the viral lectin HN, the binding of NKp44-Fc and NKp46-Fc was lost after desialylation. NKp44- and NKp46-CD3 zeta lacZ-inducible reporter cells were activated by NDV-infected cells. NDV-infected tumor cells stimulated NK cells to produce increased amounts of the effector lymphokines gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Primary NK cells and the NK line NK-92 lysed NDV-infected tumor cells with enhanced efficiency, an effect that was eliminated by the treatment of target cells with the neuraminidase inhibitor Neu5Ac2en. These results suggest that direct activation of NK cells contributes to the antitumor effects of NDV
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19515783
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  • 3
    Keywords: ACTIVATION, ADHESION, ANTIGEN, ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS, APC, ATOMIC-FORCE, B-CELL, CELL, CELLS, EVE
    Abstract: During adaptive immune responses, T lymphocytes recognize antigenic peptides presented by MHC molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APCs). This recognition results in the formation of a so-called immune synapse ( IS) at the T-cell/APC interface, which is crucial for T-cell activation. The molecular composition of the IS has been extensively studied, but little is known about the biophysics and interaction forces between T cells and APCs. Here, we report the measurement of interaction forces between T cells and APCs employing atomic force microscopy (AFM). For these investigations, specific T cells were selected that recognize an antigenic peptide presented by MHC-class II molecules on APCs. Dynamic analysis of T-cell/APC interaction by AFM revealed that in the presence of antigen interaction forces increased from 1 to 2 nN at early time-points to a maximum of approximate to 14 nN after 30 min and decreased again after 60 min. These data correlate with the kinetics of synapse formation that also reached a maximum after 30 min, as determined by high-throughput multispectral imaging flow cytometry. Because the integrin lymphocyte function antigen-1 (LFA-1) and its counterpart intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) are prominent members of a mature IS, the effect of a small molecular inhibitor for LFA-1, BIRT377, was investigated. BIRT377 almost completely abolish the interaction forces, emphasizing the importance of LFA-1/ICAM-1-interactions for firm T-cell/APC adhesion. In conclusion, using biophysical measurements, this study provides precise values for the interaction forces between T cells and APCs and demonstrates that these forces develop over time and are highest when synapse formation is maximal
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19822763
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  • 4
    Keywords: APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VIVO ; SYSTEM ; liver ; MICE ; MECHANISM ; INDUCTION ; ANTIGEN ; ANTIGENS ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T cell ; T cells ; T-CELLS ; TOLERANCE ; BONE-MARROW ; CANCER-CELLS ; NATURAL-KILLER-CELLS ; FRAGMENTS ; FAILURE ; ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY ; TUMOR CELLS ; ELIMINATION ; IMMUNE ESCAPE ; IMMUNE-SYSTEM ; ESCAPE ; CYTOKINE PRODUCTION ; TUMOR-CELL ; KUPFFER CELLS ; in vivo ; FRAGMENT ; CD8(+) T cell ; COLON-CARCINOMA CELLS ; liver sinusoidal endothelial cells ; NKT CELLS ; PERFORIN/GRANZYME PATHWAY ; sinusoidal endothelial cells
    Abstract: Development of tumor-specific T cell tolerance contributes to the failure of the immune system to eliminate tumor cells. Here we report that hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells followed by their elimination and local removal of apoptotic tumor cells in the liver leads to subsequent development of T cell tolerance towards antigens associated with apoptotic tumor cells. We provide evidence that liver sinusoidal. endothelial cells (LSEC) remove apoptotic cell fragments generated by induction of tumor cell apoptosis through hepatic NK1.1(+) cells. Antigen associated with apoptotic cell material is processed and cross-presented by LSEC to CD8(+) T cells, leading to induction of CD8(+) T cell tolerance. Adoptive transfer of LSEC isolated from mice challenged previously with tumor cells promotes development of CD8(+) T cell tolerance towards tumor-associated antigen in vivo. Our results indicate that hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells, followed by hepatic tumor cell elimination and local cross-presentation of apoptotic tumor cells by LSEC and subsequent CD8(+) T cell tolerance induction, represents a novel mechanism operative in tumor immune escape
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17039564
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  • 5
    Keywords: TUMOR-CELLS ; MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION ; HUMAN CYTOMEGALOVIRUS ; HEPARAN-SULFATE ; VACCINIA VIRUS ; CYTOTOXICITY RECEPTORS ; HUMAN NK CELLS ; VIRUS-INFECTED CELLS ; MEDIATED CYTOLYSIS ; ECTROMELIA VIRUS
    Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are an important element in the immune defense against the orthopox family members vaccinia virus (VV) and ectromelia virus (ECTV). NK cells are regulated through inhibitory and activating signaling receptors, the latter involving NKG2D and the natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR), NKp46, NKp44 and NKp30. Here we report that VV infection results in an upregulation of ligand structures for NKp30 and NKp46 on infected cells, whereas the binding of NKp44 and NKG2D was not significantly affected. Likewise, infection with ectromelia virus (ECTV), the mousepox agent, enhanced binding of NKp30 and, to a lesser extent, NKp46. The hemagglutinin (HA) molecules from VV and ECTV, which are known virulence factors, were identified as novel ligands for NKp30 and NKp46. Using NK cells with selectively silenced NCR expression and NCR-CD3f reporter cells, we observed that HA present on the surface of VV-infected cells, or in the form of recombinant soluble protein, was able to block NKp30-triggered activation, whereas it stimulated the activation through NKp46. The net effect of this complex influence on NK cell activity resulted in a decreased NK lysis susceptibility of infected cells at late time points of VV infection when HA was expression was pronounced. We conclude that poxviral HA represents a conserved ligand of NCR, exerting a novel immune escape mechanism through its blocking effect on NKp30-mediated activation at a late stage of infection.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21901096
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  • 6
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; LUNG-CANCER ; CARCINOMA CELLS ; METASTASIS ; COLORECTAL-CANCER ; COLON-CANCER ; ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-GAMMA ; TESTING ASSOCIATION ; TUMOR XENOGRAFTS ; LINE SUIT-2
    Abstract: Owing to aggressiveness and chemoresistance, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterised by a poor prognosis. To address this disease-spe-cific dilemma we aimed to establish animal models, which can be used for identifying new specific tumor markers, as well as serving as tools for potential therapeutic approaches. From a panel of sixteen pancreatic cancer cell lines, two human (Suit2-007 and Suit2-013) and a rat (ASML) cell line were selected for their properties to grow in the liver of male RNU rats and mimic liver metastasis of PDAC. For better monitoring of metastatic tumor growth in vivo, all three pancreatic cancer cell lines were stably transfected with eGFP and luciferase marker genes. In addition, the mRNA expression profile of 13 human PDAC cell lines was analyzed by BeadChip array analysis. Only 33 genes and 5 signaling pathways were identified as significantly associated with the ability of the cell lines to grow initially and/or consistently in rat liver. Only a minority of these genes (osteopontin, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and insulin-like growth factor 1) has been intensively studied and shown to be closely related to cancer progression. The function of the remaining 30 genes ranges from moderate to poorly investigated, and their function in cancer progression is still unclear. The ensuing three pancreatic cancer liver metastasis models vary in their aggressiveness and macroscopic growth. They will be used for preclinical evaluation of new therapeutic approaches aiming at the genes identified.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23007550
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  • 7
    Keywords: ONCOLOGY ; pancreatic cancer ; METASTASIS ; RAT ; liver ; MODEL ; MODELS ; CANCER
    Type of Publication: Meeting abstract published
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  • 8
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; CELLS ; ENDOTHELIAL-CELLS ; EXPRESSION ; Germany ; IN-VIVO ; VIVO ; liver ; GENE ; GENE-EXPRESSION ; DIFFERENTIATION ; ACTIVATION ; CUTTING EDGE ; INFECTION ; INDUCTION ; DENDRITIC CELLS ; T-CELLS ; TOLERANCE ; bone marrow ; BONE-MARROW ; STIMULATION ; MOUSE ; DELIVERY ; CLONAL EXPANSION ; VIRAL-INFECTION ; CROSS-PRESENTATION ; endothelial cells ; EFFECTOR FUNCTION ; RIG-I ; T cell immunity ; HEPATITIS-B VIRUS ; MURINE CYTOMEGALOVIRUS-INFECTION ; TOLEROGENIC DENDRITIC CELLS
    Abstract: BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dendritic cell activation through ligation of pattern recognition receptors leading to full functional maturation causes induction of CD8(+) T-cell immunity through increased delivery of costimulatory signals instead of tolerance. Here we investigate whether organ-resident antigen-presenting cells, such as liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), also switch from tolerogenic to immunogenic CD8(+) T-cell activation upon such stimulation. METHODS: Murine LSECs were isolated by immunomagnetic separation and analyzed for functional maturation upon triggering pattern recognition receptors or viral infection employing gene expression analysis and T cell coculture assays. In vivo relevance of the findings was confirmed with bone-marrow chimeric animals. RESULTS: LSECs expressed numerous pattern recognition receptors that allowed for sentinel function, but ligand-induced activation of these receptors was not sufficient to overcome tolerance induction of CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, viral infection with murine cytomegalovirus caused functional maturation of antigen-presenting LSECs and was sufficient to promote antigen-specific differentiation into effector CD8(+) T cells in the absence of dendritic cells and independent of CD80/86. CONCLUSIONS: These results shed new light on the generation of organ-specific immunity and may contribute to overcoming tolerance in relevant situations, such as cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19737567
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