Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-119X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The blood-brain barrier (BBB) to endogenous albumin was studied in the olfactory bulb and pons of the senescence-accelerated prone (SAMP8) mouse and senescence-accelerated resistant (SAMR1) mouse strains by using a quantitative immunocytochemical procedure. Ultrathin sections of Lowicryl K4M-embedded samples were exposed to anti-mouse albumin antiserum followed by protein A-gold. Morphometric analysis of the electron micrographs revealed that in the olfactory bulb of both groups of animals, especially in the internal granular layer, some percentage of capillaries and slightly larger microvessels showed leakage of albumin. However, this percentage was larger in SAMP8 than in SAMR1 mice. In the pons, no significant differences in the permeability of blood microvessels were observed in both groups of mice, although a small fraction of capillaries in SAMP8 mice showed limited extravasation of blood plasma albumin. These observations indicate that the BBB in the olfactory bulb of control and SAMP8 mice is not as tight as it is in the pons or in the previously examined cerebral cortex. The labelling density of the neuropil was slightly higher than in the cerebral cortex, suggesting that albumin may have extravasated locally, in addition to having acces to the parenchyma of the olfactory bulb and pons from neighbouring areas supplied with the non-BBB-type of microvasculature. Furthermore, the data obtained suggest that there is limited (segmental), premature agerelated impairment of the BBB function in SAMP8 mice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Protamine ; Blood-brain barrier ; Endogenous albumin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Morphometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cellular mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening to endogenous albumin in the mouse brain after intracarotid infusion of solutions of protamine free base (PB) or protamine sulfate (PS) were studied using quantitative immunocytochemistry. Ultrathin sections of brain samples embedded at low temperature in Lowicryl K4M were exposed to anti-mouse albumin antiserum followed by protein A-gold. Using morphometry, the density of immunosignals (gold particles per μm2) was recorded over four compartments: vascular lumen, endothelial profiles, subendothelial space (including the basement membrane), and brain parenchyma (neuropil). In addition, the adsorption of endogenous albumin evidenced by the number of gold particles per μm of the endothelial luminal plasmalemma was quantitatively evaluated. In the applied experimental conditions, PB was found to be strongly cytotoxic as indicated by the appearance of rapid degenerative changes and the disruption of the endothelial lining with concomitant clumping of the blood plasma. The action of PS was milder, offering a better opportunity for detailed ultrastructural and morphometric examination of brain samples during consecutive steps of PS action (2, 5, 10 and 30 min). As early as 10 min after infusion of PS solution, the adsorption of blood plasma albumin to the endothelial luminal surface was increased 2.5 times. Simultaneously, the immunolabelling of the endothelial profiles and subendothelial space was significantly increased. These results suggest that BBB disruption occurs through enhanced adsorption of albumin or albumin-protamine complexes to the luminal plasmalemma, followed by transendothelial vesicular transport, rather than through modification of interendothelial junctional complexes. This process appears to be focally disseminated throughout the cerebral vascular network and declines at 30 min following infusion of PS solution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Protamine ; Blood-brain barrier ; Endogenous albumin ; Immunocytochemistry ; Morphometry
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The cellular mechanisms of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening to endogenous albumin in the mouse brain after intracarotid infusion of solutions of protamine free base (PB) or protamine sulfate (PS) were studied using quantitative immunocytochemistry. Ultrathin sections of brain samples embedded at low temperature in Lowicryl. K4M were exposed to anti-mouse albumin antiserum followed by protein A-gold. Using morphometry, the density of immunosignals (gold particles per μm2) was recorded over four compartments: vascular lumen, endothelial profiles, subendothelial space (including the basement membrane), and brain parenchyma (neuropil). In addition, the adsorption of endogenous albumin evidenced by the number of gold particles per μm of the endothelial luminal plasmalemma was quantitatively evaluated. In the applied experimental conditions, PB was found to be strongly cytotoxic as indicated by the appearance of rapid degenerative changes and the disruption of the endothelial lining with concomitant clumping of the blood plasma. The action of PS was milder, offering a better opportunity for detailed ultrastructural and morphometric examination of brain samples during consecutive steps of PS action (2, 5, 10 and 30 min). As early as 10 min after infusion of PS solution, the adsorption of blood plasma albumin to the endothelial luminal surface was increased 2.5 times. Simultaneously, the immunolabelling of the endothelial profiles and subendothelial space was significantly increased. These results suggest that BBB disruption occurs through enhanced adsorption of albumin or albumin-protamine complexes to the luminal plasmalemma, followed by transendothelial vesicular transport, rather than through modification of interendothelial junctional complexes. This process appears to be focally disseminated throughout the cerebral vascular network and declines at 30 min following infusion of PS solution.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Scrapie ; Blood vessels ; Amyloid plaques ; Glycoconjugates ; Lectin-gold complexes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Lectin or glycoprotein-gold complexes and samples of scrapie-infected mouse brain embedded in Lowicryl K4M were used for ultrastructural localization of glycoconjugates. The lectins tested recognize the following residues: β-D-galactosyl [RCA,Ricinus communis agglutinin (aggl.) 120], N-acetyl and N-glycolyl neuraminic acid (LFA,Limax flavus aggl.), N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl and sialyl (WGA, Wheat germ aggl.), N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyl (HPA,Helix pomatia aggl., and DBA,Dolichosbiflorus aggl.), α-D-mannosyl/α-D-glucosyl (Con A, Concanavalin A), α-D-galactosyl and α-D-galactopyranoside (BSA,Bandeirea simplicifolia aggl., izolectin B4). Labeling of the majority of micro-blood vessels (MBVs) located outside the plaque area and in the remaining cerebral cortex was similar to that which has been previously observed in non-infected animals. Some MBVs, however, located inside the plaque area and surrounded directly by amyloid fibers showed attenuation of the endothelium, the surface of which was scarcely and irregularly decorated with RCA, LFA, WGA and Con A. These abnormalities in the composition of glycoconjugates can be associated with previously noted increased permeability of some MBVs in the brains of scrapie-infected mice. Some vessels in the plaque area were encapsulated by perivascular deposits of homogenous or flocculogranular material containing several glycoconjugates. A very intimate structural relation between reactive (microglial-like) cells and amyloid fibers suggests the participation of these cells in elaboration of plaque material. Labeling of the cell surface and adjacent amyloid fibers with the same lectins (RCA, WGA, DBA, Con A) suggests the possibility that the glycosylation of these fibers occurs extracellularly. Only WGA and DBA were occasionally labeling some Golgi elements of the reactive cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Key words Blood-brain barrier ; Albumin ; immunocytochemistry ; Scrapie infection ; Amyloid plaques ; Amyloid angiopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A quantitative immunocytochemical procedure was used for evaluation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to endogenous albumin in plaque-forming (PF) and non-plaque-forming (NPF) groups of scrapie-infected mice at the clinical stage of disease. Ultrathin sections of brain samples (cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum) embedded in resin (Lowicryl K4M) were exposed to anti-mouse albumin antiserum followed by protein A-gold. Using morphometry, the density of immunosignals (gold particles per μm2) was recorded over four compartments: vascular lumen, endothelium, subendothelial space, and brain parenchyma (neuropil). Morphometric and statistical analyses did not reveal significant differences in the barrier function of the microvasculature of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus in either group of mice, although a slight increase in the number of leaking vessels in the PF group was noted. In contrast, in the cerebellum, the permeability of the microvessels to albumin was significantly higher in the PF than in the NPF mouse group, and this was paralleled by the infiltration of the walls of numerous vascular profiles with amyloid deposits (amyloid angiopathy). These data also indicate the existence of distinct regional differences in BBB function in the brain of scrapie-infected mice. The vascular amyloid deposits and the amyloid plaques present in the cerebral cortex of PF mice were labeled with numerous immunosignals suggesting the affinity of extravasated albumin to these deposits. In conclusion, no convincing evidence was obtained indicating that impairment of the BBB, manifested by increased permeability of vascular segments, is directly related to the deposition of amyloid in the vascular wall and in plaques. Segmental impairment of the barrier function seems to be rather the result of disturbed structural integrity of the components of the vascular wall.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Scrapie ; Blood vessels ; Anionic sites ; Cationic colloidal gold ; Amyloid angiopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Cationic colloidal gold (CCG) and scrapie-infected mouse brain samples embedded in Lowicryl K4M were used for ultrastructural localization of negatively charged microdomains (anionic sites) in the cerebral microvasculature. The distribution of anionic sites on both fronts (luminal and abluminal) of endothelial cells and in the basement membrane (BM) in the majority of micro-blood vessels (MBVs) located outside the plaque area and in the remaining cerebral cortex was similar to that which has been previously observed in non-infected animals. Some MBVs (especially capillaries), however, located inside the plaque areas and surrounded directly by amyloid fibers contained attenuated endothelium, the luminal surface of which showed a segmental lack or diminution of anionic sites. In these vessels the BM was frequently infiltrated and replaced by the amyloid fibers. In some vessels located mainly in the areas of the neuropil vacuolization deposits of homogenous material causing the thickening of the BM were noted. These changes were accompanied by irregular labeling of the BM with gold particles. At the sites of bifurcation of some MBVs, predominantly in the area of the venular estuary at the mouth of capillary (at capillary-venular connections), a discontinuity in the distribution of anionic sites was noted. The observed disturbances in the distribution of anionic sites can be associated with a previously noted increased permeability of some MBVs in the brains of scrapie-infected mice.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The interaction between the brain microvascular endothelium and bovine serum albumin complexed with insulin and colloidal gold (insulin-BSA-gold) was studied in adult and newborn mice. The results suggest: (a) the modification of albumin enhances its binding to the luminal front of the endothelial cells, as compared to unmodified albumin used in previous studies from this laboratory; (b) the binding density of insulin-BSA-gold complex to blood-brain barrier microvessels is approximately 2.5 times higher in newborn than in adult mice; (c) in adult mice, fenestrated endothelia of the median eminence and choroid plexus demonstrate the highest binding capacity (over five and two times higher, respectively, than in blood-brain barrier endothelia); (d) in the median eminence only, the gold-labelled tracer particles may be transported across the vessel wall. Our observations offer new ultrastructural evidence that: (1) the modification of BSA molecules by complexing with insulin does not enhance the transport of BSA across the blood-brain barrier in mouse brain, and (2) insulin-BSA-gold complex appears adequate for ultrastructural localization of blood-brain barrier insulin receptors but is of questionable value as a tracer for demonstration of increased transendothelial transport in blood-brain barrier microvasculature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The time sequence of the blood—brain barrier opening to endogenous albumin in rat brain after intracarotid infusion of hyperosmolar L(+)arabinose was studied using quantitative irnmunocytochemistry. Brain samples obtained 1, 5, and 30 min after insult were immersion-fixed in formaldehyde-glutaraldehyde mixture and embedded at low temperature in Lowicryl K4M. Untreated rats or rats exposed only to Ringer's solution were used as a control. Ultrathin sections were exposed to anti-rat albumin antiserum followed by protein A-gold. The density of immunosignals (gold particles per square micrometre) was recorded over four compartments: vascular lumen, endothelium, subendothelial (perivascular) space including basement membrane, and brain parenchyma (neuropil). The labelling density of the vessel lumen, containing blood plasma, was considered to represent 100% of the circulating albumin. Morphometric and statistical analysis indicated that in control animals only 0.4–0.6% of circulating albumin appears in the subendothelial space and in the basement membrane. As soon as one minute after L(+)arabinose infusion, this value increased to 3%, followed by a further increase to 25% and 56% after 5 and 30 min, respectively. A slow increase of the labelling density in the adjacent neuropil suggests that the basement membrane represents an obstacle for escaping albumin, which apparently sticks to or is trapped by this membrane. The results indicate that the applied procedure, although based on morphometric analysis of static electron micrographs can also be used for studying dynamic processes such as transvascular passage of albumin after disruption of the brain-blood barrier.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-7381
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The main objective of this ultrastructural study was to gain insights into the cellular mechanisms responsible for the enhanced brain uptake of blood-borne cationized albumin observed by several authors utilizing quantitative methodology. Mice were injected intravenously or into the common carotid artery (in vivo experiments) or perfusedin situ with solutions of native or cationized bovine serum albumin complexed with colloidal gold (BSA-G or cBSA-G respectively). The results indicate that: (1) the main drawbacks ofin vivo experiments are very intense phagocytosis of the tracer particles by Kupffer cells located in the liver sinusoids and also escape of the tracer through capillaries of skeletal and heart muscles. This results in a rapid decline of the concentration and disappearance of the circulating tracer particles; (2) BSA-G and cBSA-G bothin vivo (up to 30 min circulation) or after perfusionin situ (up to 15 min) do not cross the wall of brain microvessels representing the blood-brain barrier; (3) enhanced entrance of cationized albumin into the brain occurs through fenestrated endothelium of the capillaries located in the examined circumventricular organs (median eminence and neurohypophysis). Although BSA-G is also transported by these fenestrated capillaries, this process is evidently less intense than in the case of cBSA-G; (4) the enhanced passage of cBSA-G across fenestrated capillaries occurs mainly via vesicular transport (adsorptive transcytosis), through transendothelial channels and eventually through interendothelial junctional clefts; (5) the fenestrated capillaries of the choroid plexus appear to be less permeable for both tracers than those located in the other circumventricular organs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
    Signatur Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...