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  • 1
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; DISEASE ; DISEASES ; incidence ; POPULATION ; SAMPLE ; METABOLISM ; SERA ; hormone ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; DIFFERENCE ; AGE ; MEN ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; cancer risk ; UNITED-STATES ; ALCOHOL ; BODY ; nutrition ; IMMUNOASSAYS ; ESTRADIOL ; SERUM ; BODIES ; ENDOCRINE ; WEIGHT ; ESTROGEN ; LEVEL ; SIZE ; USA ; CANCER INCIDENCE ; HORMONE LEVELS ; TESTOSTERONE ; STEROID-HORMONES ; prostate-specific antigen ; GENERAL-POPULATION ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; AFRICAN-AMERICAN ; ANDROGEN CONCENTRATIONS ; BODY-COMPOSITION ; ENDOGENOUS SEX-HORMONES ; HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN
    Abstract: Context: Higher testosterone in black compared with white men has been postulated to explain their higher prostate cancer incidence. Previous studies comparing hormone levels by race might have been limited by size, restricted age variation, or lack of representation of the general population. Objective: Our objective was to compare serum testosterone, estradiol, and SHBG concentrations among non-Hispanic black, non-Hispanic white, and Mexican-American men. Participants, Design, and Setting: A total of 1413 men aged 20 + yr and who attended the morning examination session of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) in 1988-1991 were included in this cross-sectional study. Measurement: Serum hormone concentrations were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassays. Results: After applying sampling weights and adjusting for age, percent body fat, alcohol, smoking, and activity, testosterone concentrations were not different between non-Hispanic blacks (n = 363; eometric mean, 5.29 ng/ml) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 674; 5.11 ng/ml; P 〉 0.05) but were higher in Mexican-Americans (n = 376; 5.48 ng/ml; P 〈 0.05). Non- Hispanic blacks ( 40.80 pg/ml) had a higher estradiol concentration than non-Hispanic whites (35.46 pg/ml; P 〈 0.01) and Mexican-Americans (34.11 pg/ml; P 〈 0.01). Non-hispanic blacks (36.49 nmol/liter) had a higher SHBG concentration than non-Hispanic whites (34.91 nmol/liter; P 〈 0.05) and Mexican-Americans (35.04 nmol/liter; P 〈 0.05). Conclusions: Contrary to the postulated racial difference, testosterone concentrations did not differ notably between black and white men. However, blacks had higher estradiol levels. Mexican-Americans had higher testosterone than whites but similar estradiol and SHBG concentrations. Given these findings, it may be equally if not more important to investigate estradiol as testosterone in relation to diseases with racial disparity
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17456570
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  • 2
    Keywords: POPULATION ; ASSOCIATION ; WOMEN ; MEN ; POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN ; ELDERLY-MEN ; trabecular bone ; older men ; BONE ; BINDING GLOBULIN ; BODY-COMPOSITION ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; SERUM TESTOSTERONE ; LONGITUDINAL CHANGES ; VERTEBRAL FRACTURES
    Abstract: Sex steroid hormones influence bone mineral density (BMD) in women, but are less well-studied in men. We evaluated the association of serum total and free sex steroid hormones and SHBG with osteopaenia in a nationally representative sample of men aged 20-90 years. BMD and sex steroid hormones were measured among participants in NHANES III, a cross-sectional study of the US population. A total of 1185 adult men in morning examination session of Phase I of NHANES III (1988-91). Relation of oestradiol (E-2), testosterone, and SHBG concentrations with BMD. Osteopaenia was defined as 1-2.5 SD below the mean for white men aged 20-29 years. Men in the lowest quartile of free E-2 had 70% increased odds (OR = 1.69, 95% CI 0.95-2.98) of osteopaenia compared with men in the highest quartile. Men in the lowest quartile of free testosterone had nearly four times the odds of osteopaenia than those in the highest quartile (OR = 3.82, 95% CI 1.87-7.78). Lower concentrations of SHBG appeared protective against osteopaenia (P-trend = 0.01). Neither total testosterone nor total E-2 was associated with BMD, although men with clinically low E-2 (〈 20 ng/l) had lower BMD (0.930 g/cm(2), 95% CI 0.88-0.98) than men with normal-range E-2 (1.024 g/cm(2), 95% CI 1.01-1.04; P = 0.004). Findings for free E-2 were most pronounced among elderly men, while the findings for free testosterone were most pronounced among younger men. In this nationally representative study, men with lower free E-2, lower free testosterone, and higher SHBG concentrations in circulation were more likely to have low BMD
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18485120
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; PROSTATE ; SAMPLE ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; CIGARETTE-SMOKING ; MEN ; smoking ; prostate cancer ; PROSTATE-CANCER ; US ; NETHERLANDS ; ALCOHOL ; CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; physical activity ; SERUM ; REGRESSION ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; USA ; HORMONES ; TESTOSTERONE ; older men ; FREE ESTRADIOL ; 3RD NATIONAL-HEALTH ; NUTRITION EXAMINATION SURVEY ; BONE-MINERAL DENSITY ; URINARY-TRACT SYMPTOMS ; HORMONE-BINDING GLOBULIN ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; COGNITIVE FUNCTION ; REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE ; SURVEY NHANES-III
    Abstract: We evaluated the associations of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity with sex steroid hormone concentrations among 1,275 men a parts per thousand yen20 years old who participated in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Serum concentrations of testosterone, estradiol, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured. We compared geometric mean concentrations across levels of smoking, alcohol, and physical activity using multiple linear regression. Current smokers had higher total testosterone (5.42, 5.10, and 5.26 ng/ml in current, former, and never smokers), free testosterone (0.110, 0.102, and 0.104 ng/ml), total estradiol (40.0, 34.5, and 33.5 pg/ml), and free estradiol (1.05, 0.88, and 0.84 pg/ml) compared with former and never smokers (all p a parts per thousand currency sign 0.05). Men who consumed a parts per thousand yen1 drink/day had lower SHBG than men who drank less frequently (31.5 vs. 34.8 nmol/l, p = 0.01); total (p-trend = 0.08) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.06) increased with number of drinks per day. Physical activity was positively associated with total (p-trend = 0.01) and free testosterone (p-trend = 0.05). In this nationally representative sample of men, smoking, alcohol, and physical activity were associated with hormones and SHBG, thus these factors should be considered as possible confounders or upstream variables in studies of hormones and men's health, including prostate cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 19277882
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; neoplasms ; FOLLOW-UP ; COHORT ; cohort study ; DEATH ; DISEASE ; MORTALITY ; RISK ; MECHANISM ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; MEN ; PROSPECTIVE COHORT ; nutrition ; HEART-DISEASE ; ESTRADIOL ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; ELDERLY-MEN ; PHASE ; HORMONES ; HORMONE LEVELS ; TESTOSTERONE ; prospective ; older men ; cardiovascular diseases ; androgens ; sex hormone-binding globulin ; journals ; ADULT MEN ; ALL-CAUSE ; CRITICAL ILLNESS ; LOW SERUM TESTOSTERONE ; NHANES-III
    Abstract: The association of sex hormone levels with mortality over a median of 16 years of follow-up was evaluated in a prospective cohort study. The study included 1,114 US men who participated in phase 1 (1988-1991) of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Mortality Study and had no history of cardiovascular disease or cancer at baseline. Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality associated with a decrease in hormone concentration equal to the difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles of the sex hormone distributions were estimated by using proportional hazards regression. The hazard ratios associated with low free testosterone and low bioavailable testosterone levels were 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.87) and 1.52 (95% CI: 1.15, 2.02), respectively, for follow-up between baseline and year 9; they were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.72) and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.72), respectively, for follow-up between year 9 and year 18. Men with low free and bioavailable testosterone levels may have a higher risk of mortality within 9 years of hormone measurement. Future studies should be conducted to fully characterize the association of low free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations and mortality in men and to describe the mechanism underlying the association
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20083549
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  • 5
    Keywords: MODEL ; MODELS ; POPULATION ; RISK ; TIME ; RISK-FACTORS ; ASSOCIATION ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; PLASMA ; AGE ; MEN ; nutrition ; MELLITUS ; albumin ; SERUM ; ASSOCIATIONS ; development ; LEVEL ; PHASE ; TESTOSTERONE ; odds ratio ; RISK-FACTOR ; ANDROGEN ; PREDICT ; MIDDLE-AGED MEN ; HORMONE-BINDING-GLOBULIN ; CORONARY-ARTERY-DISEASE ; ENDOGENOUS SEX-HORMONES ; FREE TESTOSTERONE
    Abstract: OBJECTIVE-Low levels of androgens in men may play a role in the development of diabetes; however, few studies have examined the association between androgen concentration and diabetes in men in the general population. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that low normal levels of total, free, and bioavailable testosterone are associated with prevalent diabetes in men. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS-The study sample included 1,413 adult men aged 〉= 20 years who participated in the morning session of the first phase of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional survey of the civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the U.S. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated from serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and albumin concentrations. RESULTS-in multivariable models adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, and adiposity, men in the first tertile (lowest) of free testosterone level were four times more likely to have prevalent diabetes compared with men in the third tertile (odds ratio 4.12 [95% CI 1.25-13.55]). Similarly, men in the first tertile of bioavailable testosterone also were approximately four times as likely to have prevalent diabetes compared wth men in the third tertile (3.93 [1.39-11.13]). These associations persisted even after excluding men with clinically abnormal testosterone concentrations defined as total testosterone 〈 3.25 ng/ml or free testosterone 〈 0.07 ng/ml. No clear association was observed for total testosterone after multivariable adjustment (P for trend across tertiles = 0.27). CONCLUSIONS-Low free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations in the normal range were associated with diabetes, independent of adiposity. These data suggest that low androgen levels may be a risk factor for diabetes in men
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17259487
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  • 6
    Keywords: CANCER ; MECHANISM ; ASSOCIATION ; cholesterol ; SERUM ; CARDIOVASCULAR-DISEASE ; cross-sectional studies ; BINDING GLOBULIN ; prostatic neoplasms ; MIDDLE-AGED MEN ; FREE TESTOSTERONE ; occupational ; ADVANCED PROSTATE-CANCER ; DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL ; FAMILIAL HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA ; Gonadal steroid hormones ; HIGH-DOSE SIMVASTATIN ; Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductases ; MALE HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC PATIENTS ; TESTICULAR FUNCTION
    Abstract: Low cholesterol levels and statin drugs may protect against prostate cancer with a worse prognosis. Their protective mechanism is unknown, but has been hypothesized to be related to cholesterol's role as a sex steroid hormone precursor. We evaluated whether serum testosterone and estradiol differ by cholesterol or cholesterol-lowering drug use. Testosterone and estradiol were measured for 1,457 male participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We estimated multivariable-adjusted geometric mean hormone concentration by quintiles of cholesterol concentration and by cholesterol-lowering drugs use. Across quintiles of cholesterol, testosterone level did not differ (mean, 95% confidence interval (CI); Q1: 5.25, 5.02-5.49, Q5: 5.05, 4.76-5.37 ng/ml; p-trend = 0.32), whereas estradiol levels were lower (Q1: 38.7, 36.9-40.5; Q5: 33.1, 31.8-34.5 pg/ml; p-trend 〈 0.0001). Neither testosterone (no: 5.12, 4.94-5.30, yes: 4.91, 4.33-5.57 ng/ml, p = 0.57) nor estradiol (no: 35.9, 34.8-37.1; yes: 33.9, 29.4-39.2 pg/ml; p = 0.39) differed by cholesterol-lowering drugs use. Testosterone did not differ by cholesterol or cholesterol-lowering drug use. Estradiol was lower in men with higher cholesterol, but did not differ by cholesterol-lowering drug use. Our results suggest that the lower risk of advanced prostate cancer among statin users is not readily explained by a cholesterol-mediated effect of statins on sex hormone levels
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20512526
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-7241
    Keywords: lipoprotein (a) ; hyperlipidemia ; pravastatin ; lovastatin ; cholestyramine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Though the exact physiology and pathology of lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] remains unknown, it has been demonstrated that increased serum Lp(a) levels are correlated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic vascular disease. The effects of lipid-lowering drugs on Lp(a) levels is unclear because of inconsistencies between study designs. This study analyzes the effects of the commonly used lipid-lowering drugs pravastatin (PRAV), lovastatin (LOV), and cholestyramine (CHOL) on serum Lp(a) and other serum lipid levels in a parallel study design. Hyperlipidemic men (n=32) were enrolled from three centers and treated for 48 weeks in a multicenter clinical trial using PRAV, LOV, CHOL, or a placebo (for the first 16 weeks only). Baseline serum low-density lipoproteins (LDL-C), high-density lipoproteins (HDL-C), and triglycerides were 199±38, 40±9, and 160±70 mg/dl, respectively. At the end of 48 weeks, serum plasma LDL-C declined in patients randomized to PRAV, LOV, and CHOL, respectively, by 31%, 29%, and 23% (all p〈0.001); HDL increased by 4%, 11%, and 11% (all p〈0.001); and TG changed by −16%, −28%, and + 43% (all p〈0.001). Subjects in PRAV and LOV changed Lp(a) by 9% and 3%, respectively. Although there was an initial Lp(a) decline in the first 8 weeks of CHOL therapy (p〈0.05, ANOVA), this returned to baseline after 48 weeks. In this parallel study design PRAV, LOV, and CHOL are effective LDL-lowering medications with minimal effects on plasma Lp(a).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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