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  • 1
    Unknown
    Totowa, N.J. : Humana
    Call number: QZ225:48
    Keywords: Cancer / Nutritional aspects ; Bioactive compounds
    Pages: xxx, 824 p. : ill.
    ISBN: 9781607616269
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  • 2
    Unknown
    Totowa, NJ : Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
    Keywords: Medicine ; Oncology ; Nutrition ; Metabolic Diseases ; Personal health and hygiene ; Emergency Medicine ; Medicine & Public Health ; Clinical Nutrition ; Nutrition ; Metabolic Diseases ; Cancer Research ; Primary Care Medicine ; Springer eBooks
    Pages: : digital
    ISBN: 9781607616276
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  • 3
    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; PATHWAY ; INFORMATION ; DISEASE ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; MARKER ; IMPACT ; SEQUENCE ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; POLYMORPHISMS ; single nucleotide polymorphism ; FORM ; STAGE ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; NUMBER ; smoking ; BLADDER ; bladder cancer ; BLADDER-CANCER ; MARKERS ; FRANCE ; PRODUCT ; Jun ; case-control studies ; TOBACCO ; CANCER-RESEARCH ; TOBACCO SMOKING ; SINGLE ; ONCOLOGY ; case control study ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; ASSOCIATIONS ; RE ; SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMS ; CANDIDATE GENES ; CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE ; EMPIRICAL-BAYES ; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURES ; interaction ; ISSUES ; MATRICES ; MYELOPEROXIDASE ; SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE ; XRCC1 POLYMORPHISMS
    Abstract: Background: Genetic association studies are generating much information, usually in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes. Analyzing such data is challenging, and raises issues of multiple comparisons and potential false-positive associations. Using data from a case-control study of bladder cancer, we showed how to use hierarchical modeling in genetic epidemiologic studies with multiple markers to control overestimation of effects and potential false-positive associations. Methods: The data were first analyzed with the conventional approach of estimating each main effect individually. We subsequently employed hierarchical modeling by adding a second stage (prior) model that incorporated information on the potential function of the genes. We used an empirical-Bayes approach, estimating the residual effects of the genes from the data. When the residual effect was set to zero, we instead used a semi-Bayes approach, in which they were pre-specified. We also explored the impact of using different second-stage design matrices. Finally, we used two approaches for assessing gene-environment interactions. The first approach added product terms into the first-stage model. The second approach used three indicators for subjects exposed to gene-only, environment-only, and both genetic and environmental factors. Results: By pre-specifying the prior second-stage covariates, the estimates were shrunk to the mean of each pathway. The conventional model detected a number of positive associations, which were reduced with the hierarchical model. For example, the odds ratio for myeloperoxidase (G/G, G/A) genotype changed from 3.17 [95% confidence interval (0), 1.32-7.59] to 1.64 (95% CI, 0.81-3.34). A similar phenomenon was observed for the gene-environment interactions. The odds ratio for the gene-environment interaction between tobacco smoking and N-acetyltransferase 1 fast genotype was 2.74 (95% Cl, 0.68-11.0) from the conventional analysis and 1.24 (95% CI, 0.80-1.93) from the hierarchical model. Conclusion: Adding a second-stage hierarchical modeling can reduce the likelihood of false positive via shrinkage toward the prior mean, improve the risk estimation by increasing the precision, and, therefore, represents an alternative to conventional methods for genetic association studies
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 15184258
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0921-4534
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: PACS: 42.68.Wt; 94.10.Gb
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A,355 and RA,532); the two data sets appearing to be highly correlated. LITE vs. Potenza LIDAR measurements of RA,355 and RA,532 display a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and 0.86, respectively. Stratospheric aerosol dimensional characteristics are determined starting from the measured values of the Ångstrom coefficient.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-7284
    Keywords: Alcohol survey ; Alcohol use ; Adolescents ; Town and mountainous area adolescents
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Alcohol consumption was investigated among 9th and 13th grade high school students in the town of Brescia (an urban area) and in the Local Health Unit of Breno, a mountainous area in the province of Brescia. A total of 1364 students from Brescia and 1373 from Breno completed an anonymous questionnaire during school time. In both groups alcohol consumption was greater among 13th graders (modal age: 18 years) and males than 9th graders (modal age: 14 years) and females. Beer was the favourite alcoholic beverage, but wine was the most widely consumed daily beverage: among males, about 8% in grade 9 and 15% in grade 13 drank at least one glass of wine every day. The majority of both 9th and 13th graders had more than one type of alcoholic beverage a week, although many females drank beer only. Total alcohol consumption was higher among the mountainous area students than urban students, especially 9th graders, and greater differences were observed in the consumption of beer with respect to wine. The proportion of male students from Brescia and Breno who consumed more than 6 alcohol units a week were, respectively, 17% and 25% in grade 9 and 36% and 42% in grade 13. A higher prevalence of drunkenness was found among the students from the mountainous area with respect to the urban students, especially males. Among 13th grade males, 42% of students from Brescia and 60% from Breno claimed one or more episodes of drunkenness during the year prior to the interview.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0167-4943
    Keywords: Diabetic neuropathy ; Elderly ; Tactile sensitivity ; Tactile test ; Tangoceptometer
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diseases of the colon & rectum 36 (1993), S. 291-292 
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Colon ; Explosion ; Diathermy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Colonic gas explosion, although rare, is one of the most frightening, sometimes fatal iatrogenic complications in endoscopic surgery, but it is much less frequent during laparotomic surgery. Here we describe a case of colonic explosion during colonic diathermy in a patient with rectal cancer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Constipation ; Colonic inertia ; Autonomic neuropathy ; Gastrointestinal motility ; Stomach ; Gallbladder motility
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract INTRODUCTION: Autonomic neuropathy is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of slow-transit constipation, but other gastrointestinal organs may also be involved, even if they are symptom-free. We investigated whether motility in gastrointestinal organs other than the colon was impaired in patients with slow-transit constipation and whether the autonomic nervous system was involved. METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients (18 females; median age, 46 years) with severe chronic constipation (≤2 defecations/week and delayed colonic transit time) were studied. Autonomic neuropathy function was tested with esophageal manometry, gastric and gallbladder emptying (fasting and postprandial motility) by ultrasonography, orocecal transit time (H2-breath test), colonic transit time (radiopaque markers), and anorectal volumetric manometry. The integrity of the autonomic nervous system was assessed by a quantitative sweat-spot test for preganglionic and postganglionic fibers, tilt-table test, and Valsalva electrocardiogram R-R ratio. RESULTS: Esophageal manometry showed gastroesophageal reflux or absence of peristalsis in five of the seven patients examined. Gallbladder dysmotility (i.e., increased fasting, postprandial residual volume, or both) was observed in 6 of 14 (43 percent) patients. Gastric emptying was decreased in 13 of 17 (76 percent) patients. Orocecal transit time was delayed in 18 of 20 (90 percent) patients; median transit time was 160 (range, 90–200) minutes. Median colonic transit time was 97 (range, 64–140) hours. Anorectal function showed abnormal rectoanal inhibitory reflex and decreased rectal sensitivity in 11 of 19 (58 percent) patients. Signs of autonomic neuropathy of the sympathetic cholinergic system were found in 14 of 18 (78 percent) patients. Only one of nine patients had vagal abnormalities detected with the Valsalva test and four of five patients with a history of orthostatic hypotension had a positive tilt-table test. CONCLUSIONS: Slow-transit constipation may be associated with impaired function of other gastrointestinal organs. More than 70 percent of patients with slow-transit constipation present some degree of autonomic neuropathy. Severe constipation may be the main complaint in patients with a systemic disease involving several organs and possibly involving the autonomic nervous system. This should be considered in the management of such cases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1530-0358
    Keywords: Rectal mucosal prolapse ; Stapler
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility, effectiveness, and reliability of a new technique for treating overt rectal mucosal prolapse using a stapler device. METHODS: Eighteen consecutive patients with overt rectal mucosal prolapse were selected for the study. Preoperative anal manometry and cinedefecography demonstrated no anal incontinence and the absence of full-thickness rectal prolapse. One or two purse strings were prepared 3 to 4 cm distally to the dentate line and tied on a 33 mm circular stapler introduced through the anus and then fired. RESULTS: The operation lasted an average of 15 minutes, and no local complications were recorded. Supplementary hemostatic sutures (2 to 6 stitches) were sometimes necessary. Seven patients did not require postoperative analgesia, whereas eight patients received one or two administrations of analgesics. Longer-lasting analgesic treatment (4 days) was necessary in only three patients. Sixteen patients were discharged after 48 hours, and only 1 after four days because of pulmonary infection. Patients resumed normal activities after a median period of three days. Median follow-up was 20 months. The prolapse was eliminated in all cases. No stricture was found at anal exploration, and no episodes of anal incontinence or bleeding were recorded. Postoperative manometry did not show significant changes compared with preoperative findings. CONCLUSIONS: This new surgical technique is safe, effective, and rapid, causing minimum or no postoperative pain and could be proposed to replace traditional surgery for this common condition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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