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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; glucokinase ; population association study ; polymorphism ; dinucleotide (CA)n repeat ; obesity ; genetic
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The prevalence of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is high in Mauritius, a multiethnic island nation in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Evaluation of candidate genes in the different ethnic groups represents a means of assessing the genetic component. As glucokinase is known to be a key regulator of glucose homeostasis in liver and pancreatic Beta-cells, the human gene was isolated and a dinucleotide repeat (CA)n marker was identified at this locus. A polymerase chain reaction assay was developed, and alleles differing in size were observed in individuals, according to the number of repeats in the amplified fragment. Eighty-five Creoles and 63 Indians of known glucose tolerance status were typed by amplification of genomic DNA for this dinucleotide (CA)n repeat marker. Four different alleles were observed including Z, the most common allele, and Z+2, Z+4, and Z+10, which differed from Z by 2, 4, and 10 nucleotides respectively. In Mauritian Creoles, the frequency of the Z+2 allele was greater in Type 2 diabetic subjects than in control subjects (23.8 % vs 8.9 %, p=0.008), and the frequency of the Z allele was lower in Type 2 diabetic subjects (60% vs 75.6%, p=0.03). Analysis with univariate logistic regression models indicated that the Z+2 allele had the highest odds ratio, 3.08 (95% confidence interval 1.14–8.35, p=0.0416), among the other risk factors (age, sex, body mass index, and waist/hip ratio). The multivariate odds ratio for Type 2 diabetes was 2.88 (95% confidence interval 0.98–8.50, p=0.0551). In contrast, in the Mauritian Indian population, no differences were noted between the frequency of any glucokinase allele in the Type 2 diabetic and control groups. These data suggest that the Z+2 allele is an important risk factor for Type 2 diabetes in Mauritian Creoles, but not in Mauritian Indians, and also imply that the glucokinase gene may play a role in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes in Mauritian Creoles. Further studies are needed to define the nature of this defect.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 37 (1994), S. 1062-1064 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus ; incidence ; insulin ; youth ; Nauru ; Tuvalu
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study aimed to compare plasma insulin concentrations across the age-range from childhood to old age in the populations of Nauru and Tuvalu, and to assess their relationship to the incidence of impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes in young Nauruans. The studies, performed in 1975 and 1976, found that Nauru had a higher prevalence of Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus than Tuvalu. Both studies included subjects of 8–29 years of age (n=320 in Nauru, n=318 in Tuvalu) and on these subjects glucose tolerance status, body mass index and fasting and 2-h (post 75 g glucose load) plasma insulin concentrations were determined. In Nauru, follow-up surveys in 1982 and 1987 included many of the subjects first seen in 1975/1976, allowing the incidence and natural history of glucose intolerance to be studied. Within the group of subjects with normal glucose tolerance, there was no effect of age on plasma insulin distributions in either population. However, in both populations, 8–19 year old subjects with normal glucose tolerance had higher body mass index-adjusted geometric mean fasting and 2-h insulin concentrations than older age-groups (p 〈 0.001 for fasting insulin). Body mass index-adjusted geometric mean 2-h plasma insulin was higher in subjects with abnormal glucose tolerance relative to those with normal glucose tolerance in both populations. In Nauruans, 2-h insulin levels at baseline were predictive of impaired glucose tolerance and Type 2 diabetes in 1982, and fasting and 2-h insulin levels predicted development of Type 2 diabetes in 1987. Hyperinsulinaemia in the presence of normal glucose tolerance is evident in young people in Nauru and Tuvalu, as has been demonstrated in other populations known to have high susceptibility to Type 2 diabetes. Even in youth, elevated fasting and 2-h insulin concentration is predictive of subsequent deterioration in glucose tolerance.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The IgG, IgE and IgA antibody responses to the whole mite extract and a purified major mite allergen Der p 1, in sera from asthmatic and age- and sex-matched control subjects from the South Fore region of the Eastern Highlands of Papua New Guinea, have been studied. Radio-allergosorbent studies showed that the majority of the asthmatics, in contrast to control subjects, produced IgE to whole mite extract, and that Der p 1 was a major allergen in this population with 88% of mite allergic asthmatics responding. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay studies on these sera showed that the geometric mean levels of whole mite, but not Der p 1, specific IgG and IgA were significantly higher in the asthmatic group than in the control group. Significant correlations between whole mite specific IgG, IgE and IgA responses were obtained. These data indicate that Papua New Guinean asthmatics are similar to Caucasian asthmatic population with regard to serological responses to mite allergens, despite differences in disease presentation, particularly the late age of onset and severity of symptoms.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2222
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This study found a prevalence of asthma of 2.5% in adults and 0.2% in children in Goroka, the major town and administrative centre of the Eastern Highlands Province of Papua New Guinea. The disease features are similar to those found in previous studies in Papua New Guinea: late age of onset and virtual absence of childhood cases; strong association with allergy to house dust mite and high mite-specific IgE levels; and considerable impairment of resting lung function. However, the prevalence is much lower than that recently found in the nearby rural South Fore linguistic group of the Okapa District. Moreover, it was noted that a preponderance of the urban cases in the present study were originally from Okapa. The implication is that particular local tetiological factors may be responsible for the documented rise in prevalence in the South Fore (Okapa) people, rather than the process of ‘Westernization’per se. This creates a valuable opportunity to learn more about the pathogenesis of asthma.
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