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  • 1
  • 2
    Keywords: Germany ; human ; EXPOSURE ; PARTICLES ; HEALTH ; smoking ; COUNTRIES ; RE ; TOBACCO-SMOKE ; EXTENT ; ENGLAND ; VALUES
    Abstract: This study quantified exposure to secondhand smoke in German restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues by determining the concentration of respirable suspended particles measuring 2.5 mu m or less (PM2.5) in indoor air. The measurements were taken using an inconspicuous device placed on the investigator's table in the venue. The concentration of particulate matter in the indoor air was measured for a minimum of 30min. A total of 39 restaurants, 20 coffee bars, 12 bars, 9 discotheques, and 20 restaurant cars in trains were visited throughout Germany from September 30 to October 31, 2005. The readings disclosed a median PM2.5 of 260 mu g/m(3) and an arithmetic mean PM2.5 of 333 mu g/m(3). Median values were 378 mu g/m(3) in bars, 131 mu g/m(3) in cafes, and 173 mu g/m(3) in restaurants. The highest medians were measured in discotheques and restaurant cars, with values averaging 432 mu g/m(3) and 525 mu g/m(3) PM2.5, respectively. This study was the first to show the magnitude and extent of exposure to secondhand smoke on such an extensive scale in Germany. The contaminated air due to smoking is a human carcinogenic and major health hazard, which would be prevented most effectively and completely by implementing a ban on smoking. This study is important for the ongoing national debate in Germany as well as for debates in all countries without smoke-free air legislation, which includes most countries around the world
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18324575
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  • 3
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    Tobacco Control 21 (2), 208-11; discussion 212 
    Keywords: SYSTEM
    Abstract: The Framework Convention for Tobacco Control (FCTC) is currently the most potent tool for implementation of tobacco control laws across the globe. The FCTC is derivative from previously constructed international human rights conventions. These previous conventions have enforcement mechanisms, unlike the FCTC. However, the FCTC relies on state parties to report periodically on its implementation rather than on a continuous monitoring system. The Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network proposes that abiding by the principles of human rights delineated by international treaties, citizens across the globe can demand effective action for tobacco control. This paper explains the link between fundamental human rights and the right to tobacco control. Mechanisms are described to link the FCTC and its principles with human rights-based monitoring reports, which are provided to oversight committees for the other human rights conventions. The initial work of the Human Rights and Tobacco Control Network is summarised and considers the future directions for the human rights-based approach to tobacco control.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22345248
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1084
    Keywords: Key words: Aortic aneurysm – Endovascular grafting – Endograft – Endoleak
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the Talent endoluminal stent graft (TESG) in treating abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). The TESG is a polyester-covered nitinol endograft (proximal diameters 20–38 mm and iliac limb diameters 8–22 mm). Twenty-two men were treated with the TESG via bilateral femoral arteriotomies. Pre-implantation, coil embolization of various vessels arising from the aneurysm was performed in 6 patients. Plain radiographs and spiral CT angiograms (CTA) were carried out at 7 days, 3, 6, and 12 months following TESG implantation or re-intervention. Median aortic and iliac diameters were 27 mm (range 20–34 mm) and 14 mm (range 10–19 mm). The corresponding graft diameters were 30 mm (range 24–38 mm) and 14 mm (range 12–20 mm). No patient was rejected purely on the basis of too large aortic or iliac diameters. Eight patients required custom-made grafts. Graft implantation was successful in all patients. There were no blood transfusions, distal embolic episodes, or conversions to open surgery. Re-intervention was necessary in 1 patient. Complications included one fatal myocardial infarction, one inguinal hematoma, and two superficial wound infections. The aneurysm thrombosed completely following implantation in 14 patients and at 3 or 6 months in 4 other patients. One patient with endoleak is awaiting his 3-month control and 2 patients show tiny endoleaks but reduction of aneurysm size. The mean aneurysm size decreased significantly from 58 ± 10 to 53 ± 13 mm (p 〈 0.0005). Due to the large sizes available and the option of custom-made grafts, the TESG helps widen the spectrum of patients who can be treated with endoluminal grafting. The treatment is associated with a significant reduction in aneurysm size.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-1285
    Keywords: Schlüsselwörter Aortenklappenersatz – Aortendissektion – Risikofaktoren – arterieller Hypertonus ; Key words Aortic valve replacement – aortic dissection – risk factor – arterial hypertension
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Summary Dissection of the ascending aorta (type A) following later after aortic valve replacement has been described with increasing frequency. This study analyzes the role of aortic valve replacement for the evolution of late dissection. In a series of 80 consecutive patients with type A dissection, a previous aortic valve replacement had been performed in 12 cases (15%). In addition to arterial hypertension (p〈0.001) and Marfan syndrome (p〈0.01), multivariate analysis identified previous aortic valve replacement (p〈0.01) as an independent predisposing factor for type A dissection. Dissection occured 3±4 years after aortic valve replacement with a clinical and anatomical profile similar to classic dissection as proven by comparison to a group of 62 patients with classic dissection associated with arterial hypertension or Marfan syndrome. With 75% and 66%, respectively, 30 day and 1 year survival of patients with dissection following later after aortic valve replacement was similar to patients with classic type A dissection. Extensive thinning and/or fragility (p〈0.05) of the aortic wall in the presence of a mildly dilated aorta (45±5 mm) at the time of aortic valve replacement was associated with a high risk for late dissection; this finding was substantiated by comparison to a control group of 10 consecutive patients with a similarly dilated aortic root but no dissection. Type and diameter of valve prostheses, cross-clamp time, NYHA functional class, and left ventricular ejection fraction were unrelated to late dissection. Previous aortic valve replacement is an independent predisposing factor for a dissection of the ascending aorta later. At the time of aortic valve replacement, prophylactic replacement or wrapping of the ascending aorta should be considered in patients with a thinned/fragile aortic wall even without a markedly dilated aortic root.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Das Auftreten von Aortendissektionen nach primär erfolgreich durchgeführtem Aortenklappenersatz ist in seinen Entstehungsmechanismen nicht geklärt. Auch ist unklar, ob sich Patienten mit Risiko für eine spätere Dissektion bereits zum Zeitpunkt des elektiven Aortenklappenersatzes identifizieren lassen. In einer Serie von 80 konsekutiven Patienten mit Dissektion der Aorta ascendens (Typ-A-Dissektion) lag in 12 Fällen (15%) ein 3±4 Jahre zurückliegender Aortenklappenersatz vor. Eine multivariate Analyse identifizierte neben der arteriellen Hypertonie (p〈0,001) und dem Marfan-Syndrom (p〈0,01) den Aortenklappenersatz (p〈0,01) als unabhängigen prädisponierenden Faktor für eine Dissektion (als Kontrollgruppe dienten 80 konsekutive Patienten mit Ausschluß einer Dissektion). Das klinische und anatomische Profil der Dissektion nach Aortenklappenersatz unterschied sich nur hinsichtlich der Häufigkeit der Aortenklappeninsuffizienz von der “klassischen” Typ-A-Dissektion (definiert als Gruppe von 62 konsekutiven Patienten mit Dissektion bei arterieller Hypertonie oder Marfan-Syndrom). Die 30-Tages- und 1-Jahres-Überlebensrate bei Dissektion nach Klappenersatz verhielt sich mit 75% und 66% ähnlich wie bei klassischer Dissektion. Der Vergleich der 12 Patienten mit Dissektion nach Klappenersatz mit 10 Patienten mit Aortendilatation nach Aortenklappenersatz ohne Dissektion zeigte, daß ein hohes Risiko für eine spätere Dissektion auch bei nur mäßig dilatierter Aorta (45±5 mm) vorliegen kann, wenn die Aorta intraoperativ bei Aortenklappenersatz ausgeprägt dünn und/oder fragil erscheint und/oder eine Klappeninsuffizienz vorliegt (p〈0,05). Typ und Durchmesser des Klappenersatzes, NYHA-Klassifizierung, linksventrikuläre Funktion und Aortenabklemmzeiten zeigten dahingegen keinen Einfluß auf das Dissektionsrisiko. Der Aortenklappenersatz stellt einen unabhängigen prädiktiven Faktor für das Entstehen von Aortendissektion dar. Bei Patienten mit dünner/fragiler sowie mäßig dilatierter Aortenwand sollte ein prophylaktisches “wrapping” oder ein Ersatz der Aorta ascendens angestrebt werden. In Fällen mit unklarem Thoraxschmerz nach Aortenklappenersatz sollte der Ausschluß einer Dissektion erfolgen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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