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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-3991
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Cushing syndrome ; Primary adrenocortical nodular dysplasia ; Adrenal stimulating immunoglobulins ; Autoimmune involvement ; Familial occurrence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Cushing syndrome due to primary adrenocortical nodular dysplasia was diagnosed in two patients, aged 3 years 9 months and 9.5 years. Subsequently, adrenalectomy was performed and followed by steroid replacement. In both cases, the adrenals were normal or only slightly enlarged and showed adrenocortical nodular dysplasia histologically. Small lymphocytic infiltrates consisting of T-cells and class II MHC positive macrophages were present in adrenal specimens of both the patients. Samples of protein A sepharose purified serum immunoglobulins from both children stimulated adrenocortical DNA synthesis and cortisol production in cultured guinea-pig adrenal segments in vitro in a dose dependent fashion. Adrenal stimulating immunoglobulins were also demonstrated in serum specimens of both patients' mothers. However, none of them had overt signs of adrenal disease. Our data support the view that autoimmune mechanisms may be involved in primary adrenocortical nodular dysplasia.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Serum factors ; Immunosuppression ; Head and neck cancer ; Retrovirus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The chemotactic responsiveness of mononuclear phagocytes has often been found defective in patients with various malignancies. We have previously reported a defective chemotactic responsiveness in patients with head and neck cancer. Low-molecular-weight factors (LMWFs) have been isolated from tumors and can be held responsible for the inhibitory effect on monocyte chemotactic responsiveness. It is an intriguing new finding that these LMWFs can be neutralized by antibodies reactive to P15E, a structural envelope protein of murine leukemia retroviruses. In this report we describe a relatively easy and rapid method for the detection of immunosuppressive P15E-like factors in the sera of patients with head and neck cancer. The test is based on the monocyte polarization assay. Although only nine head and neck cancer patients were included in this study, the findings indicate that the test might be of value for clinical application. An early detection of a recurrence after treatment might be possible by the finding of a reappearance of the P15E-like factors in patients' sera during follow-up.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-4726
    Keywords: Head and neck carcinoma ; Immunotherapy ; Monocytes ; Dendritic cells ; Thymostimulin
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients have been characterized by impairments in their cell-mediated immune system, particularly by decreased chemotactic function of monocytes and impairments in the function of the monocyte-derived dendritic cells (viz, a decreased capability to form cell “clusters”). These impairments are thought to be due to immunosuppressive factors of low molecular mass released by tumor, the so-called p15E-like factors. These suppressive effects of p15-like factors can be neutralized in vitro by thymic peptides, such as thymostimulin (TP1). In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in the Netherlands, 41 patients with operable head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) were treated for 10 days prior to surgery with intramuscular TP1 in one of three dosages (0.5 mg/kg; 1.0 mg/kg or 2.0 mg/kg body weight) or treated with placebo. Assessment of monocyte chemotaxis, the capability of dendritic cells to form clusters and the presence of p 15E-like low-molecular-mass factors (LMMFs) in serum was performed before TP1 treatment and on the day of surgery. Findings demonstrated that TP1 in a dose of 1.0 mg/kg and 2.0 mg/kg resulted in normalization of impaired monocyte chemotactic capability. Although the cluster capability of dendritic cells after TP1 treatment improved, values only reached statistical significance for the 0.5 mg/kg group. Serum p15E-like LMMF levels were not affected by TP1 treatment in any of the patient groups. Contrary to expectations we found no correlation between elevated immunosuppressive LMMFs and defective monocyte chemotaxis or cluster capability of dendritic cells. We conclude that treatment with TP1 can improve monocyte chemotaxis in HNSCC patients but an effect on the production of p15E-like factors by carcinoma cells could not be demonstrated.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 289 (1981), S. 594-596 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Fig. 1 DNA synthesis in thyroid explants measured by Feulgen densitometry. Guinea pig thyroid segments were exposed for 5 h to TSH, to immunoglobulin (Ig) of normal subjects, to immunoglob-ulin from primary myxoedema patients, or were cultured without any of these. **, P〈0.01; *, not ...
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2559
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Aim : To study human fetal pancreatic tissue between 15 weeks of gestation and term, analysing the development of pancreatic lymphoid tissue and focusing on the presence and maturational status of dendritic cells (DCs). During normal human fetal pancreatic development lymphoid tissue arises in and around the pancreas. DCs are antigen-presenting cells which are capable of initiating immunity, but are also essential in inducing and maintaining T-cell tolerance.Methods and results : First, the presence and general composition of intra- and peripancreatic lymphoid tissue was investigated by histology and immunohistochemistry with antibodies to CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD20, CD68, and CD79. Intrapancreatic lymphoid tissue (IPLT) appeared to be present only from 29 weeks of gestation onwards, and had a similar composition to peripancreatic lymphoid tissue (PPLT), which was found in all 23 specimens examined. Both forms of lymphoid tissue had an architecture similar to lymph nodes, with separate B- and T-lymphocyte areas and scattered macrophages. DCs were investigated in detail by immunohistochemistry for CD1a, CD83, CD86, CD123, Langerin, and DC-LAMP. Both Langerin, a marker for immature DCs, as well as DC-LAMP, a marker for mature DCs, were expressed by cells in both the IPLT and PPLT at all ages examined.Conclusion : The presence of DCs at all developmental stages, expressing various maturation-related markers, in addition to the general composition of the human fetal PPLT and IPLT suggests that this is fully functional and has a function comparable to peripheral lymph nodes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Lymph (pig) ; Langerhans cells ; Phase contrast microscopy ; Histochemistry ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Large mononuclear cells with long, actively moving cytoplasmic veils were observed in lymph coming from the skin. The enzyme histochemistry and ultrastructure of these cells suggested that they are related to epidermal Langerhans cells and interdigitating cells in the lymph node. It has been reported that Langerhans cells and interdigitating cells play a role in contact hypersensitivity by taking up antigen and presenting it to thymus-dependent lymphocytes, and it is likely that the veiled cells in the lymph are also involved. After skin-painting with 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB), the veiled cells in lymph coming from the site of painting became more active and were observed contacting other cells present in the lymph; many large cellular aggregates were found. Since neutrophilic leucocytes and mononuclear phagocytes were the predominating cell types in this lymph, there was no evidence for a massive recruitment of immunocompetent lymphocytes at the site of painting. Neonatally thymectomized pigs do not develop allergic reactivity to DNFB. It is of interest that the number of veiled cells and their ability to form large cellular aggregates was not affected in these animals. Therefore, it is unlikely that the defect in responsiveness can be attributed to a failure in the function of veiled cells.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 2 (1984), S. 221-224 
    ISSN: 0263-6484
    Keywords: Hormones ; ACTH ; in vitro ; Feulgen densitometry ; thymidine kinase ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: In vitro trophic effects of adrenocorticotrophin1-24 (ACTH1-24, Synacthen) on adrenal cells were studied, using an in vitro assay system of guinea-pig adrenal segments kept in organ culture. Two separate methods for detecting growth activity were used, namely the measurement of thymidine kinase and a nucleic acid cytophotometric method. Synthetic ACTH was able to induce growth in the adrenal explants at very low concentrations (10-25 fg ml-1). Biphasic dose-response curves were obtained, comparable to those described for other cytochemical bioassays. The principles of this assay system may allow the development of a new bioassay for the measurement of plasma concentrations of ACTH or antibodies mimicking the growth effect of this trophic hormone.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Cell Biochemistry and Function 4 (1986), S. 75-75 
    ISSN: 0263-6484
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1831
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Haemophilus influenzae andDiplococcus pneumoniae are thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic purulent bronchitis by producing type-III allergic reactions in the bronchial tree. It is also known that, depending on the size and form of the antigen, type-III allergic reactions may be produced that differ both at macroscopic and microscopic levels of observation. In this study we assessed the intensity and character of type-III allergic reactions produced by inactivatedD. pneumoniae, disintegrated pneumococci, and a crude soluble capsular substance prepared from this bacterial strain. Another set of bacterial antigens studied consisted of inactivated and encapsulatedH. influenzae, an aggregated and soluble form of a somaticH. influenzae antigen preparation, as well as a crude soluble capsular substance prepared from this bacterium. The bacteria and bacterial products were injected into the skin or into the peritoneal cavity of Wistar rats and C3H mice. The experimental animals had been passively sensitized with specific antisera just before antigen injection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the size and form of antigens strongly determine the character of type-III allergic reactions in animals with a given amount of circulating antibodies. Specific antibodies enhanced the intensity of reactions produced by disintegrated bacteria and soluble bacterial products, while on the other hand they were found to suppress reactions produced by intact, inactivated bacteria or aggregated bacterial products. In conclusion, when studying type-III allergic reactivity in chronic purulent bronchitis, one has to consider the size and form of bacterial antigens present in the bronchial tree.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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