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  • 1
    ISSN: 1546-170X
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: [Auszug] Retinitis pigmentosa is an inherited degenerative disease of photoreceptors leading to blindness. A well-characterized model for this disease is provided by the retinal degeneration mouse, in which the gene for the rod cGMP phosphodiesterase is mutated, as in some affected human families. We report ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract: Neurons in culture obtained from dissociated cerebral hemispheres of 8-day-old chick embryos showed measurable activities of galactosyl-, fucosyl-, and sialyl-transferases at the external surface of their plasma membrane. Important changes in these activities were observed during cell proliferation and maturation, in particular the surface fucosyltransferase activity, and/or the amount of intraceilular fucosylated acceptors increased during synaptogenesis, between 3 and 5 days in culture (d.i.c.). A sodium dodecyl sulfate radioelectrophoretic analysis of the fucosylated neuronal acceptors labelled with [14C]fucose showed, during synaptogenesis, the high labelling of two protein bands of 116 and 50 × 103 daltons. The fucosylation of glycoconjugates occurred preferentially, in neurons, upon glycoproteins whereas in glial cell cultures glycolipids were more fucosylated. The reasons for such a difference are not yet understood but the results suggest that the surface fucosyltransferase activity and fucosylated proteins in particular may play a role during the synaptogenesis of neurons in culture.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: phospholipases ; proteases ; neuraminidase ; binding sites ; gammahydroxybutyrate
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a natural compound of mammalian brain synthesized from GABA. The characteristics of its synthesis, transport, release, distribution and turnover, in addition to the presence of a high affinity binding site for this substance in brain are in favor of a modulator role for GHB. The effects of hydrolytic enzymes on the specific binding capacity of GHB have been studied in the present work. Phospholipases A2 and C, neuraminidase and Pronase markedly decrease GHB binding to crude synaptosomal membranes from rat brain. This effect is time and enzyme concentration dependent. Trypsin, under the conditions employed, is less active. The inhibitory effects of phospholipases is correlated with phospholipid hydrolysis. Lysophospholipids, in the absence of bovine fatty acid free serum albumin partially inhibit GHB binding. The action of neuraminidase has been followed by sialic acid release and modifications of the ganglioside profile. The effects of phospholipase C and of neuraminidase are completely different to those on GABA binding sites. These results represent further data concerning the molecular existence of specific GHB binding sites on rat brain membranes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Lipases ; chicken neuron cultures ; gangliosides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Chicken neurons in culture display measurable activities of mono-and diacylglycerol lipases. Treatment of chicken neuronal cultures with gangliosides (10−8M to 10−5M) resulted in a time and dose dependent increase in monoacylglycerol lipase activity. The diacylglycerol lipase showed significant increase in specific activity before that of monoacylglycerol lipase. The increase was observed only up to 24 hours and no differences between diacylglycerol lipase activity of control and ganglioside treated cells were observed after 48 hours. The data indicate that the treatment of neurons with exogenous gangliosides affect the diglyceride metabolism in stimulating not only the enzymes catalyzing their production but also those involved in their catabolism.
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