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  • 1
    Keywords: Cytology ; Oncology ; Oncology   ; Cell Biology ; Cancer Research ; Oncology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Mechanisms underlying metastatic pancreatic cancer -- Current Perspectives on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma -- An in Vitro Model of Triple Negative Breast cancer -- Emerging role of novel biomarkers of Ly6 gene family in pan cancer -- The Oncoprotein Gankyrin/PSMD10 as a Target of Cancer Therapy -- Contributing roles of CYP2E1 and other cytochrome P450 isoforms in alcohol-related carcinogenesis -- Novel Human Prostate Epithelial Cell Cultures -- African American Prostate Normal and Cancer Cells for Health Disparities Research -- Assessing the Advantages, Limitations and Potential of Human Primary Prostate Epithelial Cells as a Pre-Clinical Model for Prostate Cancer Research -- Role of alternative splicing in prostate cancer aggressiveness and drug resistance in African Americans -- Research Article: Discovery of Metabolic Biomarkers Predicting Radiation Therapy Late Effects in Prostate Cancer Patients -- The Aging Skeleton -- Parathyroid Hormone Related Protein (PTHrP): an Emerging Target in Cancer Progression and Metastasis -- Targeting DNA hypomethylation in malignancy by epigenetic therapies -- Tumor Dormancy and Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells -- Resolution of Cellular Heterogeneity in Human Prostate Cancers: Implications for Diagnosis and Treatment -- Small molecule inhibition of glycogen synthase-kinase 3 in cancer immunotherapy
    Abstract: This book, part contributed volume, part proceedings, discusses state-of-the-art advances on human cell transformation in cell models for the study of cancer and aging. Several of the chapters are from the Human Cell Transformation: Advances in Cell Models for the Study of Cancer and Aging conference that was held in June 2018 at McGill University. The authors represent international expertise on a wide variety of topics ranging from different types of cancer (prostate, bone, breast, etc.) to tumor microenvironment, tumor progression, homogeneity, and possible therapies and treatments
    Pages: XIV, 244 p. 76 illus., 69 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9783030222543
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  • 2
    Keywords: CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; INVASION ; proliferation ; TYROSINE KINASE ; ACTIVATION ; SIGNALING PATHWAY ; ATAXIA-TELANGIECTASIA ; CDK INHIBITOR ; GENETIC PROFILES
    Abstract: The expression of members of the Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases and their ephrin ligands is frequently dysregulated in medulloblastomas. We assessed the expression and functional role of EphB1 in medulloblastoma cell lines and engineered mouse models. mRNA and protein expression profiling showed expression of EphB1 receptor in the human medulloblastoma cell lines DAOY and UW228. EphB1 downregulation reduced cell growth and viability, decreased the expression of important cell cycle regulators, and increased the percentage of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle. It also modulated the expression of proliferation, and cell survival markers. In addition, EphB1 knockdown in DAOY cells resulted in significant decrease in migration, which correlated with decreased beta1-integrin expression and levels of phosphorylated Src. Furthermore, EphB1 knockdown enhanced cellular radiosensitization of medulloblastoma cells in culture and in a genetically engineered mouse medulloblastoma model. Using genetically engineered mouse models, we established that genetic loss of EphB1 resulted in a significant delay in tumor recurrence following irradiation compared to EphB1-expressing control tumors. Taken together, our findings establish that EphB1 plays a key role in medulloblastoma cell growth, viability, migration, and radiation sensitivity, making EphB1 a promising therapeutic target.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25879388
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  • 3
  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Doxorubicin ; Liposome ; Drug resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract We describe a new procedure for the preparation of liposomal doxorubicin. Doxorubicin can be efficiently complexed to preformed or lyophilized cardiolipin-containing liposomes. Complex formation was performed by vigorous vortexing. As much as 96.8% of the initial drug quanitty may be bound to those liposomes under optimal incubation conditions (4 h at 37°C). The binding study showed the presence of two levels of specific binding (dissociation constants, 28±8 μM and 1.0±0.3 mM). The drug is firmly integrated in the liposome-membrane lipid bilayer rather than binding at the surface. Cytotoxicity studies using tumor cells revealed efficient drug delivery using liposome-complexed doxorubicin. This new liposomal doxorubicin preparation reverses multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR and CH LZ cells at levels equivalent to that obtained with a previously described liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin preparation, showing that the drug is integrated as well in the liposome carrier and is transported as well into cells. Increased concentration of liposomes at the subcytotoxic level in liposome-complexed doxorubicin enhances drug cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant CH LZ cells as compared with liposome-encapsulated drug. This new preparation for liposomal doxorubicin may be carried out immediately prior to clinical administration, offering advantages in terms of cost and stability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0749-503X
    Keywords: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase ; fission yeast ; cell cycle ; DNA repair ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Genetics
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PADPRP), a chromatin-associated enzyme present in most eukaryotic cells, is stimulated by DNA strand breaks, suggesting a role for the enzyme in the cellular response to DNA damage. However, the primary function of PADPRP remains unknown. We have selected Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a simple eukaryotic system in which to study PADPRP function because this fission yeast shares with mammalian cells important cellular features possibly associated with poly-(ADP-ribos)ylation pathways. We investigated the existence of an endogenous yeast PADPRP by DNA and RNA hybridization to mammalian probes under low-stringency conditions and by PADPRP activity assays. Our data indicate that fission yeasts are naturally devoid of PADPRP. We therefore isolated S. pombe strains expressing PADPRP by transformation with a human full-length PADPRP cDNA under the control of the SV40 early promoter. The human PADPRP construct was transcribed and translated in S. pombe, generating a major transcript of the same size (3.7 kb) as that detected in mammalian cells and a 113-kDa polypeptide, identical in size to the native human PADPRP protein. Yeast recombinant PADPRP was enzymatically active and was recognized by antibodies to human PADPRP. S. pombe cells expressing PADPRP (SPT strains) showed a stable phenotype that was characterized by: (i) cell cycle retardation as a result of a specific delay at the G1 phase, (ii) decreased cell viability in stationary cultures, (iii) enhanced rates of spontaneous and radiation-induced ade6-ade7 mutations, and (iv) increased sensitivity to radiation. SPT strains may prove efficient tools with which to investigate PADPRP functions in eukaryotic cells.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0843
    Keywords: Key words Doxorubicin ; Liposome ; Drug resistance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract  We describe a new procedure for the preparation of liposomal doxorubicin. Doxorubicin can be efficiently complexed to preformed or lyophilized cardiolipin-containing liposomes. Complex formation was performed by vigorous vortexing. As much as 96.8% of the initial drug quantity may be bound to those liposomes under optimal incubation conditions (4 h at 37°C). The binding study showed the presence of two levels of specific binding (dissociation constants, 28 ± 8 μM and 1.0 ± 0.3 mM). The drug is firmly integrated in the liposome-membrane lipid bilayer rather than binding at the surface. Cytotoxicity studies using tumor cells revealed efficient drug delivery using liposome-complexed doxorubicin. This new liposomal doxorubicin preparation reverses multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR and CH LZ cells at levels equivalent to that obtained with a previously described liposome-encapsulated doxorubicin preparation, showing that the drug is integrated as well in the liposome carrier and is transported as well into cells. Increased concentration of liposomes at the subcytotoxic level in liposome-complexed doxorubicin enhances drug cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant CH LZ cells as compared with liposome-encapsulated drug. This new preparation for liposomal doxorubicin may be carried out immediately prior to clinical administration, offering advantages in terms of cost and stability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Neoplastic transformation ; X-rays ; Human prostate epithelial cells ; Protein expression ; Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Carcinogenic progression in most epithelial systems is a multistep process and presents as numerous (un)stable intermediate stages prior to the development of a fully malignant phenotype. Recently, we reported the neoplastic transformation of an SV40 immortalized, neonatal human prostate epithelial cell line (267B1) by multiple exposures to X-rays [1, 2]. The parental 267B1 cells acquired anchorage-independence and exhibited morphological transformation following exposure to two consecutive doses of 2 Gy. Exposure of either the parental 267B1 cells or the anchorage-independent derivatives (F3-SAC) to a total dose of 30 Gy of X-rays yielded tumorigenic transformants (267B1-XR and 267B1-SXR, respectively). All of these radiation-treated derivatives (F3-SAC, 267B1-XR, and 267B1-SXR) were characterized by reduced cell size and poorly organized actin stress fibers [2, 3]. The present study examines the protein expression changes associated with cytoskeletal alterations during the different steps of neoplastic progression induced by X-rays in the in vitro human prostate cell system. This analysis was achieved by using the high resolving power of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-D PAGE) in the 267B1, F3-SAC, 267B1-XR, and 267B1-SXR cells. We report changes in the expression of gelsolin in the partially transformed, anchorage-independent, nontumorigenic (F3-SAC) cells and a progressive loss of expression of tropomyosin isoforms (TM-1 and TM-3), and myosin light chain-2 (MLC-2) in the tumorigenic (267B1-XR; 267B1-SXR) cells, respectively. In contrast, our results demonstrate that the levels of the small GTP-binding protein Rho-A, an active participant in the actin stress fiber organization, are not altered during neoplastic progression of these 267B1 cells. Thus the changes in synthesis of gelsolin, tropomyosins, and MLC-2 provide a rationale for the alterations in the actin stress fiber formation and reduction in cell size during the exposure of prostate epithelial cells to multiple doses of X-rays.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0003-2697
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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