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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Focal cerebral ischemia ; Middle cerebral artery ; Rat ; Reperfusion ; 2,3,5-Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The extent of histochemical change following middle cerebral artery occlusion was quantitatively determined in three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (a marker of mitochondrial oxidative enzyme function). In group I (n=7) occlusion was maintained for 3 h, with immediate sacrifice. In group II (n=7) occlusion was maintained for 5 h, with immediate sacrifice. In group III (n=7) occlusion was maintained for 3 h, followed by a 2-h period of reperfusion prior to sacrifice. The area of injury was significantly larger (P〈0.05) in the 5-h occlusion group [15±4% (mean±SD)] compared to the 3-h occlusion group (9±2%); indicating a time-dependent worsening of the histochemical detection of injury. However, the area of injury was significantly less in the reperfusion group (5±2%) compared to the group that was evaluated after 3 h of occlusion without reperfusion (9±2%); indicating that some component of the injury revealed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride is potentially reversible. These data suggest that contrary to previous understanding, the histochemical abnormality revealed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride is reversible in some circumstances and does not necessarily represent inevitable infarction.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Blood-brain barrier ; Cerebral edema ; Cerebral ischemia ; Hypertension ; Reperfusion
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary After 180 min of temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, the affect of phenylephrine-induced hypertension on blood-brain barrier permeability was assessed. One of the following blood-pressure regimens was maintained during either a 30- or 120-min period of reperfusion: (a) 30/Norm, 30 min of normotensive reperfusion was allowed; (b) 30/HTN, mean arterial blood pressure was increased by 35 mm Hg during 30 min of reperfusion; (c) 120/Norm, 120 min of normotensive reperfusion was allowed; or (d) 120/HTN, mean arterial blood pressure was increased by 35 mm Hg during 120 min of reperfusion. Evans blue (30 mg/kg) was given, and brains were analyzed for Evans blue by spectrophotometry. Evans blue (μg/g brain tissue, mean ± SD) was greater (P〈0.05) in both hypertensive groups versus their time matched normotensive groups (30/HTN: 80±16 versus 18±6 in the 30/Norm group; 120/HTN: 17±6 versus 8±3 in the 120/Norm group). In addition, Evans blue was greater (P〈0.05) in both 30-min groups versus their pressure matched 120-min groups (30/Norm: 18±6 versus 8±3 in the 120/Norm group; 30/HTN: 80±16 versus 17±6 in the 120/HTN group). The data are consistent with previous studies which have demonstrated an opening of the blood-brain barrier at the onset of reperfusion. In addition, the data support a hypothesis that changes in blood-brain barrier permeability are more sensitive to hypertension in the early period of reperfusion.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Focal cerebral ischemia ; Spontaneously hypertensive rat ; Hypertension ; Edema ; 2,3,5-Triphenyltetrazolium chloride
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The effect of induced hypertension instituted after a 2-h delay following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) on brain edoma formation and histochemical injury was studied. Under isoflurane anesthesia, the MCA of 14 spontaneously hypertensive rats was occluded. In the control group (n=7), the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was not manipulated. In the hypertensive group (n=7), the MAP was elevated by 25–30 mm Hg beginning 2 h after MCAO. Four hours after MCAO, the rats were killed and the brains harvested. The brains were sectioned along coronal planes spanning the distribution of ischemia produced by MCAO. Specific gravity (SG) was determined in the subcortex and in two sites in the cortex (core and periphery of the ischemic territory). The extent of neuronal injury was determined by 2,3,5-triphyenyltetrazolium staining. In the ischemic core, there was no difference in SG in the subcortex and cortex in the two groups. In the periphery of the ischemic territory, SG in the cortex was greater (less edema accumulation) in the hypertensive group (1.041±0.001 vs 1.039±0.001, P 〈 0.05). The area of histochemical injury (as a percent of the cross-sectional area of the hemisphere) was less in the hypertensive group (33±3% vs 21±2%, P 〈 0.05). The data indicate that phenylephrine-induced hypertension instituted 2 h after MCAO does not aggravate edema in the ischemic core, that it improves edema in the periphery of the ischemic territory, and that it reduces the area of histochemical neuronal dysfunction.
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  • 4
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    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 127 (1931), S. 631-631 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IN our recent Report to the Empire Marketing Board on the Relative Values of Cod Liver Oils from Various Sources (E.M.B. 35), noticed in NATURE of April 4, p. 538, an unfortunate blunder has arisen during the revision and proof-reading of the introductory chapter. Reference 6 on page 9 is ...
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 115 (1925), S. 837-837 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IN Science (1924, 60, 274) Kugelmass and McQuarrie published a preliminary account of experiments they had carried out which led them to think that substances like cod liver oil which possess antirachitic properties emit ultra-violet light on undergoing a process of auto-oxidation. Their ...
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 148 (1941), S. 712-714 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IN peace-time, gardening was merely a hobby to a great many people. In consequence it was common to have a superabundance of vegetables in the summer and insufficient in the winter. Very few people before the War gave any thought to the food value of the crops they grew in their gardens. Nowadays, ...
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 145 (1940), S. 53-55 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] EARLY HISTORY IT is unlike the French to be unmindful of a son of their country who has rendered notable service in so important a matter as food, yet I am not aware that the achievement of Mege-Mouries is commemorated in France by a public monument or inscription or even by a street name. Equally ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 137 (1936), S. 148-149 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] IN June of 1934 the second International Conference on Vitamin Standardisation was held in London, called under the auspices of the Permanent Commission on Biological Standardisation of the Health Organisation of the League of Nations. This Conference made certain recommendations, of which ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 126 (1930), S. 398-398 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] THE synthesis of vitamin A in Nitzschia and other organisms grown in cultures of artificial sea-water (Jameson, Drummond, and Coward, Biochem. J., 16; 1922, and subsequent workers) has constituted the main evidence for assuming that marine organisms rely upon phytoplankton for their ...
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 147 (1941), S. 26-27 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] ON July 8, 1939, an article by a special correspondent of The Times directed attention to the beneficial influence of sesame cake on the growth of antlers. In trials at the London Zoo the antlers of a reindeer, a wapiti and a red deer no less than ten years old considerably improved after they ...
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