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  • 1
    Keywords: Medicine ; Immunology ; Parasitology ; Cell Biology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Biomedicine ; Immunology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Cell Biology ; Parasitology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Evolution of immunity and pathogens -- A host-pathogen interaction reduced to first principles: Antigenic variation in T. brucei -- Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum -- Polymorphic mucin-like proteins in Schistosoma mansoni, a variable antigen and a key component of the compatibility between the schistosome and its snail host -- Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREP) in mollusks -- Somatic and germline diversification of a putative immunoreceptor within one phylum: Dscam in arthropods -- An immune effector system in the Protochordate gut sheds light on fundamental aspects of vertebrate immunity -- Variable lymphocyte receptors: a current view -- Antibody repertoire in fish -- Unique features of fish immune repertoires: particularities of the adaptive immunity within the largest group of vertebrates -- The evolution and structure of atypical T cell receptors -- Diversification of the primary antibody repertoire by AID-mediated gene conversion -- Antibody isotype switching in vertebrates
    Abstract: This volume provides in-depth reviews of model systems that exemplify the arms race in host-pathogen interactions. Somatic adaptations are responsible for the individualization of biological responses to the environment, and the continual struggle between host immune systems and invading pathogens has given rise to corresponding processes that produce molecular variation. Whether in mollusks or human beings, various host somatic mechanisms have evolved independently, providing responses to counter rapidly-changing pathogens. The pathways they utilize can include non-heritable changes involving RNA and post-translational modifications, or changes that produce somatic DNA recombination and mutation. For infectious organisms such as protozoans and flatworms, antigenic variation is central to their survival strategy. Evolving the ability to evade the host immune system not only increases their chances of survival but is also necessary for successful re-infection within the host population
    Pages: VIII, 336 p. 35 illus., 26 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2015.
    ISBN: 9783319208190
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  • 2
    Keywords: Immunology ; Evolution (Biology) ; Developmental Biology ; Immunology ; Evolutionary Biology ; Developmental Biology ; Springer eBooks
    Description / Table of Contents: Chapter 1: What makes evolution tick? -- Chapter 2: Immunity - the unicellular to metazoan transition -- Chapter 3: Innate immunity -- Chapter 4: The triumph of individualism: evolution of somatically generated adaptive immune systems -- Chapter 5: The other side of the arms race -- Chapter 6: Postface
    Abstract: Immunology is a nodal subject that links many areas of biology. It permeates the biosciences, and also plays crucial roles in diagnosis and therapy in areas of clinical medicine ranging from the control of infectious and autoimmune diseases to tumour therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and small molecule modulators of immunity are major factors in the pharmaceutical industry and now constitute a multi billion dollar business. Students in these diverse areas are frequently daunted by the complexity of immunology and the astonishing array of unusual mechanisms that go to make it up. Starting from Dobzhansky’s famous slogan, “Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”, this book will serve to illuminate how evolutionary forces shaped immunity and thus provide an explanation for how many of its counter intuitive oddities arose. By doing so it will provide a conceptual framework on which students may organise the rapidly growing flood of immunological knowledge
    Pages: XVI, 145 p. 26 illus., 24 illus. in color. : online resource.
    Edition: 1st ed. 2019.
    ISBN: 9783030186678
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK; Malden, USA : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Immunological reviews 198 (2004), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary:  Urochordates and cephalochordates do not have an adaptive immune system involving the somatic rearrangement of their antigen receptor genes. They do not have antigen-presenting molecules of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-linked class I and II types. In the absence of such a system, the status of their genes reflects perhaps a primitive pre-recombination-activating gene (RAG) stage that could suggest the pathway leading to the genesis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and antibodies.In the genome of Ciona intestinalis, genes that encode molecules with membrane receptor features have been found among many members of the immunoglobulin superfamily (Igsf). They use the domains typical of vertebrate antigen receptors and class I and II: the V, and C1-like domains. These genes belong to two families with recognizable homologs in vertebrates: the junctional adhesion molecule (JAM)/cortical thymocyte marker of Xenopus (CTX) family and the nectin family. The human homologs of these genes segregate in a single unit of four paralogous segments on chromosomes 1q, 3q, 11p, and 21q. These regions contain nowadays several genes involved in the adaptive immune system, and some related members are present in the MHC paralogs as well. They also contain receptor-like genes without homologs in Ciona but with related members in the protostome Drosophila.It looks as if in Ciona one detects what looks like the ‘fossil’ of one group of genes bound to duplicate and give rise to many crucial elements of the adaptive immune system. The modern homologs of these JAM, CTX, and nectins are all or almost all virus receptors, and the hypothesis is formulated that this property was taken advantage of during evolution to participate in the elaboration of either or both the somatically generated antigen-recognizing receptors and the antigen-presenting molecules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    Immunological reviews 175 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1600-065X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary: The amphibian Xenopus and mammals have similar organization and usage of their immunoglobulin gene loci with combinatorial joining of V, D and J elements. The differences in B-cell development between mammals and this amphibian are due to major differences in developmental kinetics, cell number and lymphoid organ architecture. Unlike mammals, the immune system of Xenopus develops early under pressure to develop quickly and to produce a heterogeneous repertoire before lymphocyte numbers reach 5,000, thereby imposing a limitation on clonal amplification. In addition, it is submitted to metamorphosis. Thus, during the early antigen-independent period, several features of B-cell development related to immune diversification are under strict genetically preprogramed control: 1) D reading frames contribute complementary determining region 3 with features that occur in mammals by somatic selection, 2) the temporal stepwise utilization of VH genes in Xenopus occur in families probably because of structural DNA features rather than their position in the locus. Larval and adult immune responses differ in heterogeneity. Larval rearrangements lack N diversity. During the course of immune responses, somatic mutants are generated at the same rate as in other vertebrates but are not optimally selected, probably due to the simpler organization of the lymphoid organs, with neither lymph nodes nor germinal centers resulting in poor affinity maturation. Switch from IgM to other isotypes is mediated by loop-excision deletion of the IgM constant region gene via switch regions which, unlike their mammalian counterpart, are A-T rich and reveal conserved microsites for the breakpoints.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 279 (1979), S. 157-158 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Figure 1 is a schematic presentation of how such animals are obtained, in this case for X. laevis x X. gilli hybrids. First generation hybrid females from this and other species combinations frequently produce diploid eggs from allotetraploid oocytes produced by endo-reduplication in the germ line. ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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