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  • 1
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Column liquid chromatography ; Nitric acid ester phase ; Alkyl nitrates ; Group separation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The synthesis of a nitric acid ester NP-LC stationary phase (organonitrate phase), by nitrating a commercial polyol phase (Serva, Polyol Si 100, 5 μm) with mixed sulfuric-and nitric acid, is reported. The nitric acid ester bond is quite stable towards hydrolysis. To examine its possible use as a stationary phase for the group separation of alkyl nitrates, several bifunctional polar alkyl nitrates (di-nitrates, hydroxy-nitrates, keto-nitrates) have been synthesized. In order to simplify their names a new abbreviating nomenclature for multifunctional organic nitrates is presented. With our new stationary phase it is possible to separate mono-, di-, and hydroxy-nitrates as groups completely, a major advantage in sample preparation in the chemistry of smog formation. However a co-elution of di- and keto-nitrates is observed. A distinction of the latter two organonitrate groups is possible by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric detection (MSD). Apart from the fragment ion NO2 + (m/z=46 amu), which is nearly specific for alkyl nitrates, aliphatic di- and keto-nitrates show different characteristic fragment ions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors are considered responsible for the increasing prevalence of allergic diseases. Although there is some evidence for allergy-promoting effects in children because of exposure to plasticizers, such as phthalates, findings of previous studies are inconsistent and lack mechanistic information. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of maternal phthalate exposure on asthma development in subsequent generations and their underlying mechanisms, including epigenetic alterations. METHODS: Phthalate metabolites were measured within the prospective mother-child cohort Lifestyle and Environmental Factors and Their Influence on Newborns Allergy Risk (LINA) and correlated with asthma development in the children. A murine transgenerational asthma model was used to identify involved pathways. RESULTS: In LINA maternal urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate, a metabolite of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), were associated with an increased asthma risk in the children. Using a murine transgenerational asthma model, we demonstrate a direct effect of BBP on asthma severity in the offspring with a persistently increased airway inflammation up to the F2 generation. This disease-promoting effect was mediated by BBP-induced global DNA hypermethylation in CD4(+) T cells of the offspring because treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent alleviated exacerbation of allergic airway inflammation. Thirteen transcriptionally downregulated genes linked to promoter or enhancer hypermethylation were identified. Among these, the GATA-3 repressor zinc finger protein 1 (Zfpm1) emerged as a potential mediator of the enhanced susceptibility for TH2-driven allergic asthma. CONCLUSION: These data provide strong evidence that maternal BBP exposure increases the risk for allergic airway inflammation in the offspring by modulating the expression of genes involved in TH2 differentiation through epigenetic alterations.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 28392331
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