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  • 1
    Keywords: POPULATION ; RISK-FACTORS ; OVARIAN-CANCER ; susceptibility loci ; CHINESE WOMEN ; AFRICAN-AMERICAN ; FGFR2 ; CONFER SUSCEPTIBILITY ; FAMILY REGISTRY ; WHOLE-GENOME
    Abstract: Early-onset breast cancer (EOBC) causes substantial loss of life and productivity, creating a major burden among women worldwide. We analyzed 1,265,548 Hapmap3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) among a discovery set of 3,523 EOBC incident cases and 2,702 population control women ages 〈= 51 years. The SNPs with smallest P values were examined in a replication set of 3,470EOBC cases and 5,475 control women. We also tested EOBC association with 19,684 genes by annotating each gene with putative functional SNPs, and then combining their P values to obtain a gene-based P value. We examined the gene with smallest P value for replication in 1,145 breast cancer cases and 1,142 control women. The combined discovery and replication sets identified 72 new SNPs associated with EOBC(P 〈 4 x 10(-8)) located in six genomic regions previously reported to contain SNPs associated largely with later-onset breast cancer (LOBC). SNP rs2229882 and 10 other SNPs on chromosome 5q11.2 remained associated (P 〈 6 x 10(-4)) after adjustment for the strongest published SNPs in the region. Thirty-two of the 82 currently known LOBC SNPs were associated with EOBC (P 〈 0.05). Low power is likely responsible for the remaining 50 unassociated known LOBC SNPs. The gene-based analysis identified an association between breast cancer and the phosphofructokinase-muscle (PFKM) gene on chromosome 12q13.11 that met the genome-wide gene-based threshold of 2.5 x 10(-6). In conclusion, EOBC and LOBC seem to have similar genetic etiologies; the 5q11.2 region may contain multiple distinct breast cancer loci; and the PFKM gene region is worthy of further investigation. These findings should enhance our understanding of the etiology of breast cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24493630
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  • 2
    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; carcinoma ; VARIANTS ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; METAANALYSIS ; 8Q24 ; SCAN ; RISK LOCUS ; GENOTYPE IMPUTATION ; NEGATIVE REGULATOR LRIG1
    Abstract: Genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer is caused by rare pathogenic mutations and common genetic variants that contribute to familial risk. Here we report the results of a two-stage association study with 18,299 cases of colorectal cancer and 19,656 controls, with follow-up of the most statistically significant genetic loci in 4,725 cases and 9,969 controls from two Asian consortia. We describe six new susceptibility loci reaching a genome-wide threshold of P〈5.0E - 08. These findings provide additional insight into the underlying biological mechanisms of colorectal cancer and demonstrate the scientific value of large consortia-based genetic epidemiology studies.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26151821
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  • 3
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    German Medical Science GMS Publishing House; Düsseldorf
    In:  Mainz//2011; 56. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Medizinische Informatik, Biometrie und Epidemiologie (gmds), 6. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Epidemiologie (DGEpi); 20110926-20110929; Mainz; DOC11gmds306 /20110920/
    Publication Date: 2011-09-20
    Keywords: SNPs ; polymorphisms ; colorectal cancer ; ddc: 610
    Language: English
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 4
    Keywords: CANCER ; ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH-FACTOR ; RISK ; NF-KAPPA-B ; ASSOCIATION ; POLYMORPHISMS ; UP-REGULATION ; COLON-CANCER ; PROGRAMMED CELL-DEATH ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; tumor microenvironment ; PROSTAGLANDIN E-2 ; FALSE DISCOVERY RATE
    Abstract: PURPOSE: Prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with systemic inflammation, and anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce both CRC incidence and mortality. Genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways can affect an individual's CRC risk. However, few studies have investigated the prognostic importance of this genetic variation in CRC patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We investigated the association between CRC survival and genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways among patients from the Puget Sound Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results registry. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped in five genes (PTGS-1, PTGS-2, MRP4, NFkappaB, and IkappaBKbeta). Vital status was ascertained through linkage to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The false discovery rate method of Benjamini and Hochberg was applied to address multiple testing. RESULTS: Four PTGS-1 variants were associated with CRC survival. One, G〉A intron 9 (rs1213266), was associated with approximately 50% lower CRC mortality (HR(AA/AG vs. GG) = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.25-0.93). Three variants, including L237M, resulted in significantly elevated CRC mortality risk, with HRs ranging from approximately 1.5 to 2.0. Two variants in IkappaBKbeta, including R526Q, were significantly associated with CRC survival. Correction for multiple testing indicated that variants in both PTGS-1 and IkappaBKbeta are reproducibly associated with CRC survival. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that genetic variation in proinflammatory pathways may be important for CRC prognosis. This investigation represents one of the first descriptions of the relationship between inherited polymorphisms and mortality in CRC patients and provides a starting point for further research. Clin Cancer Res; 17(22); 7139-47. (c)2011 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21976545
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  • 5
    Keywords: MUTATIONS ; SURVEILLANCE ; CARRIERS ; PREDICTION ; FAMILY-HISTORY ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; DISEASE RISK ; ADENOMATOUS POLYPS ; TYPE-2 DIABETES RISK
    Abstract: Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a substantial heritable component. Common genetic variation has been shown to contribute to CRC risk. A study was conducted in a large multi-population study to assess the feasibility of CRC risk prediction using common genetic variant data combined with other risk factors. A risk prediction model was built and applied to the Scottish population using available data. Design Nine populations of European descent were studied to develop and validate CRC risk prediction models. Binary logistic regression was used to assess the combined effect of age, gender, family history (FH) and genotypes at 10 susceptibility loci that individually only modestly influence CRC risk. Risk models were generated from case-control data incorporating genotypes alone (n=39 266) and in combination with gender, age and FH (n=11 324). Model discriminatory performance was assessed using 10-fold internal cross-validation and externally using 4187 independent samples. The 10-year absolute risk was estimated by modelling genotype and FH with age- and gender-specific population risks. Results The median number of risk alleles was greater in cases than controls (10 vs 9, p〈2.2x10(-16)), confirmed in external validation sets (Sweden p=1.2x10(-6), Finland p-2x10(-5)). The mean per-allele increase in risk was 9% (OR 1.09; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.13). Discriminative performance was poor across the risk spectrum (area under curve for genotypes alone 0.57; area under curve for genotype/age/gender/FH 0.59). However, modelling genotype data, FH, age and gender with Scottish population data shows the practicalities of identifying a subgroup with 〉5% predicted 10-year absolute risk. Conclusion Genotype data provide additional information that complements age, gender and FH as risk factors, but individualised genetic risk prediction is not currently feasible. Nonetheless, the modelling exercise suggests public health potential since it is possible to stratify the population into CRC risk categories, thereby informing targeted prevention and surveillance.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 22490517
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  • 6
    Abstract: Pancreatic phospholipase A2, product of PLA2G1B, catalyzes the release of fatty acids from dietary phospholipids.Diet is the ultimate source of arachidonic acid in cellular phospholipids, precursor of eicosanoid signaling molecules, linked to inflammation, cell proliferation and colorectal carcinogenesis. We evaluated the association of PLA2G1B tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms with colorectal neoplasia risk. A linkage-disequilibrium-based tagSNP algorithm (r(2)=0.90, MAF〉/=4%) identified three tagSNPs. The SNPs were genotyped on the Illumina platform in three population-based, case-control studies: colon cancer (1424 cases/1780 controls); rectal cancer (583/775); colorectal adenomas (485/578). Evaluating gene-wide associations, principal-component and haplotype analysis were conducted, individual SNPs were evaluated by logistic regression. Two PLA2G1B variants were statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of rectal cancer (rs5637, 3702 G〉A Ser98Ser, p-trend=0.03; rs9657930, 1593 C〉T, p-trend=0.01); principal component analysis showed that genetic variation in the gene overall was statistically significantly associated with rectal cancer (p=0.02). NSAID users with the rs2070873 variant had a reduced rectal cancer risk (P-inter=0.02). Specific associations were observed with tumor subtypes (TP53/KRAS). The results suggest that genetic polymorphisms in PLA2G1B affect susceptibility to rectal cancer.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24046806
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  • 7
    Keywords: POPULATION ; PROMOTER ; LYMPHOCYTES ; COLON-CANCER ; PPAR-GAMMA ; ACTIVATED RECEPTOR-GAMMA ; INHIBIT ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; COMMON POLYMORPHISMS ; PRO12ALA POLYMORPHISM
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that chronic inflammation plays a role in the etiology of colorectal cancer. Using a two-stage design, we examined the associations between colorectal cancer and common variation in 37 key genes in the inflammation and innate immunity pathways. METHODS: In the discovery stage, 2,322 discordant sibships (2,535 cases, 3,915 sibling controls) from the Colorectal Cancer Family Registry were genotyped for more than 600 tagSNPs and 99 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were selected for further examination based on strength of association. In the second stage, 351 SNPs tagging gene regions covered by the 99 SNPs were tested in 4,783 Multiethnic Cohort subjects (2,153 cases, 2,630 controls). RESULTS: The association between rs9858822 in the PPARG gene and colorectal cancer was statistically significant at the end of the second stage (OR per allele = 1.36, Bonferroni-adjusted P = 0.045), based on the "effective" number of markers in stage II (n = 306). The risk allele C was common (frequency 0.3) in African Americans but rare (frequency 〈 0.03) in whites, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. No statistically significant heterogeneity of effects across race/ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) levels, regular aspirin use, or pack-years of smoking was detected for this SNP. Suggestive associations were also observed for several SNPs in close vicinity to rs9858822. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide new evidence of association between PPARG variants and colorectal cancer risk. IMPACT: Further replication in independent samples is warranted. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(11); 2094-101. (c)2013 AACR.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24045924
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  • 8
    Keywords: PROGRESSION ; FIBER ; COLON-CANCER ; ULCERATIVE-COLITIS ; METAANALYSIS ; RED MEAT ; MULTIETHNIC COHORT ; susceptibility loci ; ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION ; ASSOCIATION SCAN
    Abstract: Dietary factors, including meat, fruits, vegetables and fiber, are associated with colorectal cancer; however, there is limited information as to whether these dietary factors interact with genetic variants to modify risk of colorectal cancer. We tested interactions between these dietary factors and approximately 2.7 million genetic variants for colorectal cancer risk among 9,287 cases and 9,117 controls from ten studies. We used logistic regression to investigate multiplicative gene-diet interactions, as well as our recently developed Cocktail method that involves a screening step based on marginal associations and gene-diet correlations and a testing step for multiplicative interactions, while correcting for multiple testing using weighted hypothesis testing. Per quartile increment in the intake of red and processed meat were associated with statistically significant increased risks of colorectal cancer and vegetable, fruit and fiber intake with lower risks. From the case-control analysis, we detected a significant interaction between rs4143094 (10p14/near GATA3) and processed meat consumption (OR = 1.17; p = 8.7E-09), which was consistently observed across studies (p heterogeneity = 0.78). The risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat was increased among individuals with the rs4143094-TG and -TT genotypes (OR = 1.20 and OR = 1.39, respectively) and null among those with the GG genotype (OR = 1.03). Our results identify a novel gene-diet interaction with processed meat for colorectal cancer, highlighting that diet may modify the effect of genetic variants on disease risk, which may have important implications for prevention.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24743840
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  • 9
    Keywords: DISEASE ; HEALTH ; DESIGN ; COLON-CANCER ; PANCREATIC-CANCER ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; RISK LOCI ; COMMON SNPS ; HUMAN HEIGHT
    Abstract: A sizable fraction of colorectal cancer (CRC) is expected to be explained by heritable factors, with heritability estimates ranging from 12 to 35% twin and family studies. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified a number of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with CRC risk. Although it has been shown that these CRC susceptibility SNPs only explain a small proportion of the genetic risk, it is not clear how much of the heritability these SNPs explain and how much is left to be detected by other, yet to be identified, common SNPs. Therefore, we estimated the heritability of CRC under different scenarios using Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis in the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium including 8025 cases and 10 814 controls. We estimated that the heritability explained by known common CRC SNPs identified in GWAS was 0.65% (95% CI:0.3-1%; P = 1.11 x 10-16), whereas the heritability explained by all common SNPs was at least 7.42% (95% CI: 4.71-10.12%; P = 8.13 x 10(-8)), suggesting that many common variants associated with CRC risk remain to be detected. Comparing the heritability explained by the common variants with that from twin and family studies, a fraction of the heritability may be explained by other genetic variants, such as rare variants. In addition, our analysis showed that the gene x smoking interaction explained a significant proportion of the CRC variance (P = 1.26 x 10(-2)). In summary, our results suggest that known CRC SNPs only explain a small proportion of the heritability and more common SNPs have yet to be identified
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24562164
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  • 10
    Keywords: COLON-CANCER ; microsatellite instability ; POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE ; ULCERATIVE-COLITIS ; CROHNS-DISEASE ; susceptibility loci ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; ISLAND METHYLATOR PHENOTYPE ; MOLECULAR-FEATURES ; MAIT CELLS
    Abstract: We identified the minor allele (T) in SNP rs11676348 to have pleiotropic effect on risk of UC and CRC, particularly in tumors with an inflammatory component. Our findings offer the promise of risk stratification of UC patients for developing CRC.Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have separately identified many genetic susceptibility loci for ulcerative colitis (UC), Crohn's disease (CD) and colorectal cancer (CRC), there has been no large-scale examination for pleiotropy, or shared genetic susceptibility, for these conditions. We used logistic regression modeling to examine the associations of 181 UC and CD susceptibility variants previously identified by GWAS with risk of CRC using data from the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and the Colon Cancer Family Registry. We also examined associations of significant variants with clinical and molecular characteristics in a subset of the studies. Among 11794 CRC cases and 14190 controls, rs11676348, the susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) for UC, was significantly associated with reduced risk of CRC (P = 7E-05). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of CRC with each copy of the T allele was 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.96). The association of the SNP with risk of CRC differed according to mucinous histological features (P (heterogeneity) = 0.008). In addition, the (T) allele was associated with lower risk of tumors with Crohn's-like reaction but not tumors without such immune infiltrate (P (heterogeneity) = 0.02) and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-high) but not microsatellite stable or MSI-low tumors (P (heterogeneity) = 0.03). The minor allele (T) in SNP rs11676348, located downstream from CXCR2 that has been implicated in CRC progression, is associated with a lower risk of CRC, particularly tumors with a mucinous component, Crohn's-like reaction and MSI-high. Our findings offer the promise of risk stratification of inflammatory bowel disease patients for complications such as CRC.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26071399
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