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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: bone ; matrix metastasis ; metalloproteinases ; TGF-β1
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Bone metastases are a common complication in prostate and breast cancer patients. It leads to extensive morbidity and eventually mortality. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are known to be involved in the metastatic process. MMP activity can be down-regulated by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), a growth-modulating factor, found in high concentrations in the bone. TGF-β1 acts through the TGF-β1 inhibitory element (TIE) element, a cis-acting element found in the promoter region of most MMP genes, with the exception of MMP-2. We used three human cell lines relevant for bone metastases, namely prostate adenocarcinoma PC-3, breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231, and adenocarcinoma cells of unknown origin, Hs696, and one human osteosarcoma cell line, SAOS-2, and showed that in these cell lines TGF-β1 partially lost its repressing action on MMP expression. TGF-β1 was able to induce MMP-9 activity and protein expression in all three bone-metastatic tumour cell types, whereas MMP-9 protein levels were repressed in SAOS-2 cells. In PC-3 cells, TGF-β1 repressed MMP-1 expression, whereas in MDA-MB-231 and SAOS-2 cells, an increase in the expression of MMP-1 protein was detected. Additionally, an increase in MMP-3 expression was observed in Hs696 cells. Expression and activity of the tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, were found increased in both PC-3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. With respect to cell proliferation, TGF-β1 was able to induce a dose-dependent growth inhibition of up to 50% in primary human mammary epithelial cells. However, in none of the tumour cell lines was TGF-β1 able to suppress growth substantially. Data presented in this paper support the hypothesis that TGF-β1 can potentially disrupt the balance existing between osteoclast- and osteoblast-derived MMP activity by inducing altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors derived from bone-metastasizing cancer cells. This could eventually lead to skeletal destruction in patients with advanced metastatic disease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-7276
    Keywords: bone metastasis ; breast carcinoma ; histomorphometry ; human ; immunohistochemistry ; MMP ; TIMP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are essential in several stages of the metastatic process, and in normal bone development and remodeling. We explored whether the interaction between tumor cells and bone leads to changes in MMP and tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP) expression thus affecting osteolysis in metastatic bone disease. Using immunohistochemistry we have investigated the MMP/TIMP expression in tumor cells, fibroblasts, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Thirty one specimens of bone metastasis from breast carcinoma were stained for MMP-1, -2, -9, MT1-MMP and TIMP- 1, and -2 and compared with staining in normal breast tissue, primary breast carcinoma and normal bone. Specimens came from patients in three clinical scenarios: from open biopsies without or with pathological fracture, or bone marrow biopsies containing tumor from patients with pancytopenia but without clinical evidence of osteolysis. By bone histomorphometry the latter group showed a heavy tumor load not different from the open biopsy groups but displayed little active bone resorption and low numbers of osteoclasts. Cell type-specific MMP/TIMP expression was observed and the staining patterns were comparable between the three groups of patients. Though no major differences in the MMP/TIMP staining of tumor cells and fibroblasts were observed between bone metastasis and primary tumor, we showed that tumor cells do express MMPs capable of degrading bone matrix collagen. The number and activity of osteoclasts and osteoblasts was increased dramatically in bone metastases, their MMP/TIMP profiles, however, were not different from normal bone, suggesting that the mechanism of bone degradation by osteoclasts is not different from normal bone remodelling.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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