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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Equine ; Suprascapular nerve ; Demyelination ; Entrapment
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The suprascapular nerve from 14 horses, which had no clinical evidence of spinatus muscle atrophy, were obtained to determine whether the nerve was sub-clinically compressed at the scapular edge. The nerves were divided into three portions, proximal and distal to the scapular edge and as it reflected around it. In nine horses there was evidence of a chronic neuropathy which varied in severity and which was most severe at the site of reflection, where the nerve appeared constricted by a tendinous band. At this site the predominant change was that of chronic demyelination and remyelination, with many scattered thinly myelinated fibres and occasionally profuse onion bulb formation. There were also occasional regenerating clusters, which were the only abnormalities seen in the distal nerve. Renaut bodies appeared to be more common and larger in nerves with chronic focal neuropathy. Teased fibres confirmed the chronic myelin sheath changes, and the presence of many paranodal swellings suggested a possible chronic compressive aetiology. This is the first reported spontaneous entrapment neuropathy in the domestic animals.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy ; Fibertype grouping ; Foal
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The age of onset of equine recurrent laryngeal neuropathy has not been ascertained, although the clinical condition of left laryngeal hemiplegia (“roaring”) has been recognized for centuries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the laryngeal muscles of draft horse foals for the presence of fiber-type grouping, indicating denervation and reinnervation, and to determine if histological evidence of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy was present. Abductor and adductor laryngeal muscles from the left and right sides were collected immediately after euthanasia from male draft horse foals, six less than 2 weeks and four 6 months of age, and stained for myosin ATPase. A morphometric test was used to objectively evaluate several areas from each muscle for fiber-type grouping. Extensive fiber-type grouping which was characteristic of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy was found in one of the young foals and all of the older foals. Four of the young foals had some areas of fiber-type grouping suggestive of mild, early changes associated with recurrent laryngeal neuropathy. One of the young foals had no fiber-type grouping present in any of the laryngeal muscles evaluated. These findings suggest an early age of onset of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 84 (1992), S. 316-321 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Foal ; Recurrent laryngeal neuropathy ; Bungner bands ; Onion bulbs ; Swollen axons
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The left and right recurrent laryngeal nerves and peroneal nerves from two groups of foals, one less than 1 month of age and the other 6 months of age, were examined by light and electron microscopy. While there was no evidence of fiber loss on light microscopy, occasional onion bulbs, regenerating clusters and swollen axons were seen in the recurrent laryngeal nerves. To quantitate these changes, total counts of the main pathological structures were performed using the electron microscope. In all the foals the most common abnormality seen in the laryngeal nerves were Bungner bands, which were most numerous in the left recurrent laryngeal nerve of the older group of foals. Swollen axons which contained accumulations of organelles were seen in both age groups but were more common in the older foals. Likewise, onion bulbs were more frequent in the older animals but were also seen as well-formed structures in a foal less than 2 weeks of age. These findings confirm the previous report of neurogenic changes in the laryngeal muscles of foals and suggest that recurrent laryngeal neuropathy has an early and possible prenatal onset in the horse.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: X-Irradiation ; Intraspinal Schwann cell ; Myelin ; Autoradiography ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary A stable population of intraspinal Schwann cells, which developed follwing early postnatal irradiation of the spinal cord, was challenged by the addition of tellurium (Te) to the diet beginning at 30 days of age. Schwann cells incorporating [3H]thymidine were identified by 1 μm autoradiographs and by conventional electron microscopy of adjacent thin sections. Autoradiographs of areas with Schwann cell myclination showed extensive labelling of cells in the Te-fed animals. In contrast, control animals which were not fed Te showed little evidence of labelled Schwann cells. These data indicate that Schwann cells in the intraspinal environment show a proliferative response to the presence of Te in the rat's diet, as do Schwann cells in their normal extraspinal milieu.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Schwann cell ; Oligodendrocyte ; Electron microscopy ; Myelin ; Optic nerve
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Neonatal rats were exposed to Tellurium (Te), via the mother's milk, from the day of birth until sacrifice at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Light and electron microscopy revealed Schwann cell and myelin degeneration in the sciatic nerves at each age studied. These changes were similar to those described in weanling rats as a result of Te intoxication. In the CNS, hypomyelination of the optic nerves was convincingly demonstrated at 14, 21, and 28 days of age, accompanied by some evidence of myelin degeneration. These changes were also seen in the ventral columns of the cervical spinal cords, although less markedly, and were confirmed by quantitative methods. There was little evidence of oligodendrocyte pathology in the CNS, and it appears that degeneration of these cells is not the primary cause of the CNS hypomyelination, in contrast to the PNS where Schwann cell degeneration has been shown to precede the myelin pathology.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Acta neuropathologica 46 (1979), S. 169-172 
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Giant axonal neuropathy ; CNS ; Dog ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The pathology of the central nervous system (CNS) in a dog with giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is presented. Swollen axons containing excessive and disorganised neurofilaments were present in the spinal cord, mainly at the distal portions of long tracts. The fasciculus gracilis and dorsal spinocerebellar tracts were affected only in the rostral cervical cord while the lateral cortico spinal tract was principally involved in the lower thoracic and lumbar cord. Occasional swellings were also found in the central dorsal columns of the rostral lumbar segments and in the dorsal and intermediate grey matter. The nuclei gracilis and cuneatus, restiform body and ventral spinocerebellar tracts were all involved in the brain stem. Spheroids were seen in the white matter of the rostral cerebellar vermis and in the granule cell layer. The brachium of the superior colliculus contained swollen axons and the cortex was diffusely involved with spheroids. The distribution was of a distal axonopathy and the cortical changes provided an explanation for the abnormal EEG and mental retardation found in some human patients.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0533
    Keywords: Canine sensory neuropathy ; Distal axonopathy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The microscopical findings in a sensory neuropathy affecting Long Haired Dachshund dogs are described. This disorder, which may have a genetic basis, results in loss of proprioception, touch and sense and reduction or loss of nociception and urinary control. In the distal cutaneous nerves, there was a severe loss of large myelinated fibers but unmyelinated fiber density was not reduced. Many of the remaining myelinated fibers contained accumulations of axonal organelles and teased fibers showed that some were degenerating whilst others had successive areas of paranodal demyelination. There was marked pathology of unmyelinated fibers with proliferation of tubulo-vesicular profiles resulting in the formation of stacks or lamellar arrays and darkening of the axoplasm. There were numerous regenerating unmyelinated axons. In the spinal cord, axonal degeneration was scen in the distal portion of the dorsal columns. The clinical signs in this distal axonopathy were therefore compatible with the widespread sensory nerve pathology which was found. It is concluded that this neuropathy resulted from progressive nerve degeneration and comparisons between this neuropathy and other sensory neuropathies in animals and man are made.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] To determine whether sodium-channel clusters form on CNS axons in the absence of glia, purified retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from rats at postnatal day 8 (P8) were cultured in serum-free medium for 2.5 weeks, a time when most nodes would have formed in vivo7'8. Diffuse sodium-channel ...
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