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  • 1
    Abstract: The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are major players in drug metabolism. More than 2,000 mutations have been described, and certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to have a large impact on CYP activity. Therefore, CYPs play an important role in inter-individual drug response and their genetic variability should be factored into personalized medicine. To identify the most relevant polymorphisms in human CYPs, a text mining approach was used. We investigated their frequencies in different ethnic groups, the number of drugs that are metabolized by each CYP, the impact of CYP SNPs, as well as CYP expression patterns in different tissues. The most important polymorphic CYPs were found to be 1A2, 2D6, 2C9 and 2C19. Thirty-four common allele variants in Caucasians led to altered enzyme activity. To compare the relevant Caucasian SNPs with those of other ethnicities a search in 1,000 individual genomes was undertaken. We found 199 non-synonymous SNPs with frequencies over one percent in the 1,000 genomes, many of them not described so far. With knowledge of frequent mutations and their impact on CYP activities, it may be possible to predict patient response to certain drugs, as well as adverse side effects. With improved availability of genotyping, our data may provide a resource for an understanding of the effects of specific SNPs in CYPs, enabling the selection of a more personalized treatment regimen.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24340040
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  • 2
    Abstract: We created SynSysNet, available online at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/synsysnet, to provide a platform that creates a comprehensive 4D network of synaptic interactions. Neuronal synapses are fundamental structures linking nerve cells in the brain and they are responsible for neuronal communication and information processing. These processes are dynamically regulated by a network of proteins. New developments in interaction proteomics and yeast two-hybrid methods allow unbiased detection of interactors. The consolidation of data from different resources and methods is important to understand the relation to human behaviour and disease and to identify new therapeutic approaches. To this end, we established SynSysNet from a set of approximately 1000 synapse specific proteins, their structures and small-molecule interactions. For two-thirds of these, 3D structures are provided (from Protein Data Bank and homology modelling). Drug-target interactions for 750 approved drugs and 50 000 compounds, as well as 5000 experimentally validated protein-protein interactions, are included. The resulting interaction network and user-selected parts can be viewed interactively and exported in XGMML. Approximately 200 involved pathways can be explored regarding drug-target interactions. Homology-modelled structures are downloadable in Protein Data Bank format, and drugs are available as MOL-files. Protein-protein interactions and drug-target interactions can be viewed as networks; corresponding PubMed IDs or sources are given.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23143269
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  • 3
    Keywords: DISEASE ; CARE ; AGE ; WOMENS HEALTH
    Abstract: BACKGROUND: Searches for sex and gender-specific publications are complicated by the absence of a specific algorithm within search engines and by the lack of adequate archives to collect the retrieved results. We previously addressed this issue by initiating the first systematic archive of medical literature containing sex and/or gender-specific analyses. This initial collection has now been greatly enlarged and re-organized as a free user-friendly database with multiple functions: GenderMedDB (http://gendermeddb.charite.de). DESCRIPTION: GenderMedDB retrieves the included publications from the PubMed database. Manuscripts containing sex and/or gender-specific analysis are continuously screened and the relevant findings organized systematically into disciplines and diseases. Publications are furthermore classified by research type, subject and participant numbers. More than 11,000 abstracts are currently included in the database, after screening more than 40,000 publications. The main functions of the database include searches by publication data or content analysis based on pre-defined classifications. In addition, registrants are enabled to upload relevant publications, access descriptive publication statistics and interact in an open user forum. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, GenderMedDB offers the advantages of a discipline-specific search engine as well as the functions of a participative tool for the gender medicine community.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24904731
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  • 4
    Keywords: INFORMATION ; MOLECULES ; PREDICTION ; CHEMISTRY ; LEADS ; UPDATE ; DRUG DISCOVERY ; MEDICINE
    Abstract: Natural products play a significant role in drug discovery and development. Many topological pharmacophore patterns are common between natural products and commercial drugs. A better understanding of the specific physicochemical and structural features of natural products is important for corresponding drug development. Several encyclopedias of natural compounds have been composed, but the information remains scattered or not freely available. The first version of the Supernatural database containing approximately 50,000 compounds was published in 2006 to face these challenges. Here we present a new, updated and expanded version of natural product database, Super Natural II (http://bioinformatics.charite.de/supernatural), comprising approximately 326,000 molecules. It provides all corresponding 2D structures, the most important structural and physicochemical properties, the predicted toxicity class for approximately 170,000 compounds and the vendor information for the vast majority of compounds. The new version allows a template-based search for similar compounds as well as a search for compound names, vendors, specific physical properties or any substructures. Super Natural II also provides information about the pathways associated with synthesis and degradation of the natural products, as well as their mechanism of action with respect to structurally similar drugs and their target proteins.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25300487
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  • 5
    Abstract: Here, we present an updated version of CancerResource, freely available without registration at http://bioinformatics.charite.de/care. With upcoming information on target expression and mutations in patients' tumors, the need for systems supporting decisions on individual therapy is growing. This knowledge is based on numerous, experimentally validated drug-target interactions and supporting analyses such as measuring changes in gene expression using microarrays and HTS-efforts on cell lines. To enable a better overview about similar drug-target data and supporting information, a series of novel information connections are established and made available as described in the following. CancerResource contains about 91 000 drug-target relations, more than 2000 cancer cell lines and drug sensitivity data for about 50 000 drugs. CancerResource enables the capability of uploading external expression and mutation data and comparing them to the database's cell lines. Target genes and compounds are projected onto cancer-related pathways to get a better overview about how drug-target interactions benefit the treatment of cancer. Features like cellular fingerprints comprising of mutations, expression values and drug-sensitivity data can promote the understanding of genotype to drug sensitivity associations. Ultimately, these profiles can also be used to determine the most effective drug treatment for a cancer cell line most similar to a patient's tumor cells.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 26590406
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  • 6
    Keywords: DRUG ; FRAGMENTS ; CHEMISTRY ; pharmacology ; SETS ; COMPREHENSIVE DATABASE ; SUPERTARGET
    Abstract: Animal trials are currently the major method for determining the possible toxic effects of drug candidates and cosmetics. In silico prediction methods represent an alternative approach and aim to rationalize the preclinical drug development, thus enabling the reduction of the associated time, costs and animal experiments. Here, we present ProTox, a web server for the prediction of rodent oral toxicity. The prediction method is based on the analysis of the similarity of compounds with known median lethal doses (LD50) and incorporates the identification of toxic fragments, therefore representing a novel approach in toxicity prediction. In addition, the web server includes an indication of possible toxicity targets which is based on an in-house collection of protein-ligand-based pharmacophore models ('toxicophores') for targets associated with adverse drug reactions. The ProTox web server is open to all users and can be accessed without registration at: http://tox.charite.de/tox. The only requirement for the prediction is the two-dimensional structure of the input compounds. All ProTox methods have been evaluated based on a diverse external validation set and displayed strong performance (sensitivity, specificity and precision of 76, 95 and 75%, respectively) and superiority over other toxicity prediction tools, indicating their possible applicability for other compound classes.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24838562
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  • 7
    Keywords: NETWORK ; MOLECULES ; DISCOVERY ; DATABASE ; pharmacology
    Abstract: The SuperPred web server connects chemical similarity of drug-like compounds with molecular targets and the therapeutic approach based on the similar property principle. Since the first release of this server, the number of known compound-target interactions has increased from 7000 to 665,000, which allows not only a better prediction quality but also the estimation of a confidence. Apart from the addition of quantitative binding data and the statistical consideration of the similarity distribution in all drug classes, new approaches were implemented to improve the target prediction. The 3D similarity as well as the occurrence of fragments and the concordance of physico-chemical properties is also taken into account. In addition, the effect of different fingerprints on the prediction was examined. The retrospective prediction of a drug class (ATC code of the WHO) allows the evaluation of methods and descriptors for a well-characterized set of approved drugs. The prediction is improved by 7.5% to a total accuracy of 75.1%. For query compounds with sufficient structural similarity, the web server allows prognoses about the medical indication area of novel compounds and to find new leads for known targets. SuperPred is publicly available without registration at: http://prediction.charite.de.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24878925
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Monatshefte für Chemie 53-54 (1929), S. 764-778 
    ISSN: 1434-4475
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Vacuum 29 (1979), S. 3-8 
    ISSN: 0042-207X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Vacuum 13 (1963), S. 505-506 
    ISSN: 0042-207X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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