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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary An active cellulolytic culture was obtained following growth of the Cellulomonas strain CS1-17 for 24 h at 32° C on 1 or 2% alkali pretreated sugar cane bagasse. Environmental conditions were then varied to favour reducing sugar accumulation from fresh alkali pretreated bagasse added to the 24 h culture medium at 75 g/l. After incubation for an additional 48 h at 37° C under anaerobic, aerobic and aerobic+0.2% sodium azide conditions, reducing sugar was accumulated at 22.8, 23.7 and 25.6 g/l respectively. Approximately 83% of this release occurred during the first 18 h of incubation and the reducing sugar released contained approximately 14% xylose, 35% glucose, and 26% cellobiose. Addition of exogenous cellobiase resulted in conversion of the cellobiose to glucose.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary An NTG induced mutant of a bile acid utilizing strain of Pseudomonas putida was isolated which was blocked in the steroid catabolic pathway. This mutant (PS5-7) was able to accumulate both phenolic and catecholic secosteroid products from cholic acid. Using a transposing system containing the kanamycin resistance transposon Tn5, mutants of PS5-7 were isolated which produced only the phenolic secosteroid. One of these mutants (PS5-25) was able to produce close to theoretical yields of various phenolic secosteroids from corresponding bile acids.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Mutants have been isolated from a strain of Cellulomonas which are capable of producing up to 26-fold higher levels of β-glucosidase than the parent under certain growth conditions.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary A highly cellulolytic Cellulomonas mutant, CS1-17, has been shown to be improved over the original parent strain, CS1-1, with respect to xylanase and β-xylosidase activities. From induction studies during growth on xylan, crystalline cellulose and carboxymethylcellulose it can be deduced that, although both activities have been similarly affected by the mutation, xylanolytic activity is distinct from cellulolytic activity; however, the possibility of some cross-specificity has not been eliminated.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary An effective storage procedure has been demonstrated for the mosquito pathogen Culicinomyces clavisporus. A mycelial preparation was harvested by filtration, sprayed with a sucrose solution and air dried at 20°C in a laminar flow cabinet until the mycelial mat became crisp. This material was then ground in a hammer mill and particles of less than 355 μm were sieved out. Viability of the particles was assessed by studying mycelial growth and conidial formation when particles were added to water agar plates or to water. The particles retained 100% viability after 9 weeks storage at-20°C or 6 days at 4°C. Preparations lost activity rapidly if stored at 20°C. Conidia produced by this method were pathogenic to mosquito larvae.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract A 3.6-kb plasmid, designated pND324, was isolated from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis LL57-1. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of three open reading frames, rep324, orfX1 and orfX2, which are flanked by two non-coding regions, ori324 and cisE. The minimal replication region of pND324 consists of ori324 and rep324, which is closely related to the lactococcal θ-type replicons of the pWV02/pCI305 family. pND324 was stable at both 30 °C and 37 °C, whereas derivatives that lack cisE were highly unstable at 37 °C, indicating that cisE is essential for thermostability. Sequences that are similar to orfX1 are commonly present in the lactococcal θ-type plasmids. The orfX2 product is homologous to TrfA, a 43-kDa protein of the E. coli theta-type plasmid RK2 required for replication and maintenance. Plasmid deletion and stability analyses showed that orfX2 is involved in the thermostability of pND324. Based on the minimal replication region of pND324, an integrative cloning vector, designated pND421, was constructed. In L. lactis LM0230, cells that carried pND421 integrated into its host chromosomal DNA could be recovered readily following incubation at 37 °C for 40 generations. The integrated plasmid was totally stable for at least 100 generations without selection at 30 °C.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Summary Mutant derivatives of a strain of Cellulomonas (CS1-1) were shown to be able to degrade crystalline cellulose (cotton wool) more efficiently compared to the parent strain. These mutants were also more effective in the accumulation of reducing sugar in the growth medium under certain environmental conditions. Differences between the mutant derivatives and CS1-1 were reflected by assay of the amount and distribution of various cellulolytic enzymes.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The kinetics of nisin production was studied in batch cultures using a construct of Lactococcuslactis subsp. lactis C2SmPrt−, containing a transposon (TnNip) that encodes nisin production. The introduction of TnNip into C2SmPrt−significantly lowered the specific growth rate and the maximum A 620 reached was reduced from 15.2 to 11.0. The effect of nisin concentration and nutrient depletion on nisin production of the construct, C2SmPrt−(TnNip), was examined. Nisin production was found to be inhibited by high concentrations of nisin, when grown in excess nutrient, even though growth of the culture continued because nutrient limitation was not operating. However, in low nutrient concentrations nisin production was limited by nutrient depletion. The specific growth rate of C2SmPrt−(TnNip) was altered, by using different nutrient concentrations and different sugars, in order to examine the relationship between nisin production and growth. Nisin production was shown to be growth-associated for most of growth, but near the end of growth, when the specific growth rate was 0.05 h−1 or less, the production ceased.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0614
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Abstract The effect on nisin production of increasing nisin immunity/resistance genes in Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis MG1363 was investigated. The 60-kb nisin immunity/resistance plasmid pND300, which was isolated from a non-nisin-producing strain, encodes five genes involved in nisin immunity/resistance, which are very similar to those of the immunity/resistance system encoded by the nisin-production transposon. The introduction of pND300 into MG1363(TnNip) resulted in the construct being able to produce significantly more nisin than the parent MG1363(TnNip). The introduction of pND314, which contains the nisin immunity/resistance genes subcloned into pSA3, into MG1363(TnNip) allowed the strain to grow more rapidly than the parent MG1363(TnNip) with a concomitant increase in the rate of nisin production. This work illustrates that introduction of pND300 and a derivative containing the nisin immunity/resistance system of pND300 into MG1363 (TnNip) can result in significant alterations to the kinetics of nisin production. These observations indicate approaches that may be used successfully to improve the economics of nisin production.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 20 (1978), S. 917-920 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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