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  • 1
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Key words Ageing ; Advanced glycation endproducts ; Alzheimer’s dementia ; Amyloid ; lipid peroxidation ; Oxidative stress
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. The histopathological changes in AD include neuronal cell death and formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) NFTs are composed of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and senile plaques contain aggregates of the β-peptide. There is also evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress during the course of the disease. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which are formed by a non-enzymatic reaction of glucose with long-lived protein deposits, are potentially toxic to the cell, are present in brain plaques in AD, and its extracellular accumulation in AD may be caused by an accelerated oxidation of glycated proteins. The microtubuli-associated protein tau is also subject to intracellular AGE formation. AGEs participate in neuronal death causing direct (chemical) radical production: Glycated proteins produce nearly 50-fold more radicals than non-glycated proteins, and indirect (cellular) radical production: Interaction of AGEs with cells increases oxidative stress. During aging cellular defence mechanisms weaken and the damages to cell constituents accumulate leading to loss of function and finally cell death. The development of drugs for the treatment of AD remains at a very unsatisfying state. However, pharmacological approaches which break the vicious cycles of oxidative stress and neurodegeneration offer new opportunities for the treatment of AD. Theses approaches include AGE-inhibitors, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory substances, which prevent radical production. AGE inhibitors might be able to stop formation of AGE-modified β-amyloid deposits, antioxidants are likely to scavenge intracellular and extracellular superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide before these radicals damage cell constituents or activate microglia, and anti-inflammatory drugs attenuating microglial radical and cytokine production.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1463
    Keywords: Keywords: Oxidative stress ; diabetes ; aging ; advanced glycation endproducts ; lipid peroxidation.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. Many approaches have been undertaken to understand Alzheimer's disease (AD) but the heterogeneity of the etiologic factors makes it difficult to define the clincally most important factor determining the onset and progression of the disease. However, there is increasing evidence that the previously so-called "secondary factors" such as a disturbed glucose metabolism, oxidative stress and formation of "advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs) and their interaction in a vicious cycle are also important for the onset and progression of AD. AGEs are protein modifications that contribute to the formation of the histopathological and biochemical hallmarks of AD: amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles and activated microglia. Oxidative modifications are formed by a complex cascade of dehydration, oxidation and cyclisation reactions, subsequent to a non-enzymatic reaction of sugars with amino groups of proteins. Accumulation of AGE-crosslinked proteins throughout life is a general phenomenon of ageing. However, AGEs are more than just markers of ageing since they can also exert adverse biologic effects on tissues and cells, including the activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways, leading to the upregulation of cytokine and free radical production (oxidative stress). Oxidative stress is involved in various divergent events leading to cell damage, including an increase in membrane rigidity, DNA strand breaks and an impairment in glucose uptake. In addition, other age-related metabolic changes such as depletion of antioxidants or decreased energy production by a disturbed glucose metabolism diminish the ability of the cell to cope with the effects of radical-induced membrane, protein and DNA damage. With our improving understanding of the molecular basis for the clinical symptoms of dementia, it is hoped that the elucidation of the etiologic causes, particularly the positive feedback loops involving radical damage and a reduced glucose metabolism, will help to develop novel "neuroprotective" treatment strategies able to interrupt this vicious cycle of oxidative stress and energy shortage in AD.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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