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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-04-13
    Description: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are believed to have genetic and environmental origins, yet in only a modest fraction of individuals can specific causes be identified. To identify further genetic risk factors, here we assess the role of de novo mutations in ASD by sequencing the exomes of ASD cases and their parents (n = 175 trios). Fewer than half of the cases (46.3%) carry a missense or nonsense de novo variant, and the overall rate of mutation is only modestly higher than the expected rate. In contrast, the proteins encoded by genes that harboured de novo missense or nonsense mutations showed a higher degree of connectivity among themselves and to previous ASD genes as indexed by protein-protein interaction screens. The small increase in the rate of de novo events, when taken together with the protein interaction results, are consistent with an important but limited role for de novo point mutations in ASD, similar to that documented for de novo copy number variants. Genetic models incorporating these data indicate that most of the observed de novo events are unconnected to ASD; those that do confer risk are distributed across many genes and are incompletely penetrant (that is, not necessarily sufficient for disease). Our results support polygenic models in which spontaneous coding mutations in any of a large number of genes increases risk by 5- to 20-fold. Despite the challenge posed by such models, results from de novo events and a large parallel case-control study provide strong evidence in favour of CHD8 and KATNAL2 as genuine autism risk factors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613847/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3613847/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Neale, Benjamin M -- Kou, Yan -- Liu, Li -- Ma'ayan, Avi -- Samocha, Kaitlin E -- Sabo, Aniko -- Lin, Chiao-Feng -- Stevens, Christine -- Wang, Li-San -- Makarov, Vladimir -- Polak, Paz -- Yoon, Seungtai -- Maguire, Jared -- Crawford, Emily L -- Campbell, Nicholas G -- Geller, Evan T -- Valladares, Otto -- Schafer, Chad -- Liu, Han -- Zhao, Tuo -- Cai, Guiqing -- Lihm, Jayon -- Dannenfelser, Ruth -- Jabado, Omar -- Peralta, Zuleyma -- Nagaswamy, Uma -- Muzny, Donna -- Reid, Jeffrey G -- Newsham, Irene -- Wu, Yuanqing -- Lewis, Lora -- Han, Yi -- Voight, Benjamin F -- Lim, Elaine -- Rossin, Elizabeth -- Kirby, Andrew -- Flannick, Jason -- Fromer, Menachem -- Shakir, Khalid -- Fennell, Tim -- Garimella, Kiran -- Banks, Eric -- Poplin, Ryan -- Gabriel, Stacey -- DePristo, Mark -- Wimbish, Jack R -- Boone, Braden E -- Levy, Shawn E -- Betancur, Catalina -- Sunyaev, Shamil -- Boerwinkle, Eric -- Buxbaum, Joseph D -- Cook, Edwin H Jr -- Devlin, Bernie -- Gibbs, Richard A -- Roeder, Kathryn -- Schellenberg, Gerard D -- Sutcliffe, James S -- Daly, Mark J -- KL2 RR024977/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD015052/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P50 GM071558/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50 HD055751/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH057881/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH061009/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089004/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089025/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089175/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089208/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH089482/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH084676/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH089175/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01MH089208/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- TL1 RR024978/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003067/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- U54 HG003273/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- UL1 RR024975/RR/NCRR NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Apr 4;485(7397):242-5. doi: 10.1038/nature11011.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Analytic and Translational Genetics Unit, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22495311" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Autistic Disorder/*genetics ; Case-Control Studies ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*genetics ; Exome/genetics ; Exons/*genetics ; Family Health ; Genetic Predisposition to Disease/*genetics ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Multifactorial Inheritance/genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Phenotype ; Poisson Distribution ; Protein Interaction Maps ; Transcription Factors/*genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-05
    Description: Adipogenesis involves a complex signaling network requiring strict temporal and spatial organization of effector molecules. Molecular scaffolds, such as 14-3-3 proteins, facilitate such organization, and we have previously identified 14-3-3ζ as an essential scaffold in adipocyte differentiation. The interactome of 14-3-3ζ is large and diverse, and it is possible that novel adipogenic factors may be present within it, but this possibility has not yet been tested. Herein, we generated mouse embryonic fibroblasts from mice overexpressing a tandem affinity purification (TAP) epitope–tagged 14-3-3ζ molecule. After inducing adipogenesis, TAP–14-3-3ζ complexes were purified, followed by MS analysis to determine the 14-3-3ζ interactome. We observed more than 100 proteins that were unique to adipocyte differentiation, 56 of which were novel interacting partners. Among these, we were able to identify previously established regulators of adipogenesis (i.e. Ptrf/Cavin1) within the 14-3-3ζ interactome, confirming the utility of this approach to detect adipogenic factors. We found that proteins related to RNA metabolism, processing, and splicing were enriched in the interactome. Analysis of transcriptomic data revealed that 14-3-3ζ depletion in 3T3-L1 cells affected alternative splicing of mRNA during adipocyte differentiation. siRNA-mediated depletion of RNA-splicing factors within the 14-3-3ζ interactome, that is, of Hnrpf, Hnrpk, Ddx6, and Sfpq, revealed that they have essential roles in adipogenesis and in the alternative splicing of Pparg and the adipogenesis-associated gene Lpin1. In summary, we have identified novel adipogenic factors within the 14-3-3ζ interactome. Further characterization of additional proteins within the 14-3-3ζ interactome may help identify novel targets to block obesity-associated expansion of adipose tissues.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9258
    Electronic ISSN: 1083-351X
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Cancer cells induce a set of adaptive response pathways to survive in the face of stressors due to inadequate vascularization. One such adaptive pathway is the unfolded protein (UPR) or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response mediated in part by the ER-localized transmembrane sensor IRE1 (ref. 2) and its substrate XBP1 (ref. 3). Previous studies report UPR activation in various human tumours, but the role of XBP1 in cancer progression in mammary epithelial cells is largely unknown. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC)--a form of breast cancer in which tumour cells do not express the genes for oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2 (also called ERBB2 or NEU)--is a highly aggressive malignancy with limited treatment options. Here we report that XBP1 is activated in TNBC and has a pivotal role in the tumorigenicity and progression of this human breast cancer subtype. In breast cancer cell line models, depletion of XBP1 inhibited tumour growth and tumour relapse and reduced the CD44(high)CD24(low) population. Hypoxia-inducing factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha) is known to be hyperactivated in TNBCs. Genome-wide mapping of the XBP1 transcriptional regulatory network revealed that XBP1 drives TNBC tumorigenicity by assembling a transcriptional complex with HIF1alpha that regulates the expression of HIF1alpha targets via the recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Analysis of independent cohorts of patients with TNBC revealed a specific XBP1 gene expression signature that was highly correlated with HIF1alpha and hypoxia-driven signatures and that strongly associated with poor prognosis. Our findings reveal a key function for the XBP1 branch of the UPR in TNBC and indicate that targeting this pathway may offer alternative treatment strategies for this aggressive subtype of breast cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105133/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105133/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Chen, Xi -- Iliopoulos, Dimitrios -- Zhang, Qing -- Tang, Qianzi -- Greenblatt, Matthew B -- Hatziapostolou, Maria -- Lim, Elgene -- Tam, Wai Leong -- Ni, Min -- Chen, Yiwen -- Mai, Junhua -- Shen, Haifa -- Hu, Dorothy Z -- Adoro, Stanley -- Hu, Bella -- Song, Minkyung -- Tan, Chen -- Landis, Melissa D -- Ferrari, Mauro -- Shin, Sandra J -- Brown, Myles -- Chang, Jenny C -- Liu, X Shirley -- Glimcher, Laurie H -- AI32412/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- CA112663/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K99 CA175290/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- K99CA175290/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016086/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R00 CA160351/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI032412/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 CA112663/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004069/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG004069/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 3;508(7494):103-7. doi: 10.1038/nature13119. Epub 2014 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Sandra and Edward Meyer Cancer Center of Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; 1] Center for Systems Biomedicine, Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA [3]. ; 1] Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Bioinformatics, School of Life Science and Technology, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China [2] Institute of Animal Genetics and Breeding, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Ya'an, Sichuan 625014, China [3]. ; Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; 1] Center for Systems Biomedicine, Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA [2] Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, 9 Cambridge Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA. ; Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA. ; Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030, USA [2] Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; Endocrine Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA. ; Division of Hematology/Oncology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Houston Methodist Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; 1] Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Houston, Texas 77030, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA. ; 1] Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 1300 York Avenue, New York, New York 10065, USA [2] Houston Methodist Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670641" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Antigens, CD24/metabolism ; Antigens, CD44/metabolism ; Cell Hypoxia/genetics ; Cell Line, Tumor ; Cell Proliferation ; DNA-Binding Proteins/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Disease Progression ; Female ; Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic ; Gene Regulatory Networks ; Gene Silencing ; Humans ; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/*metabolism ; Mice ; Neoplasm Invasiveness ; Neoplasm Recurrence, Local ; Prognosis ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; Transcription Factors/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic ; Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms/blood supply/genetics/*metabolism/*pathology ; Unfolded Protein Response
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-05-25
    Description: Objectives To validate the performances of two prediction models (Brock and Lee models) for the differentiation of minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) and invasive pulmonary adenocarcinoma (IPA) from preinvasive lesions among subsolid nodules (SSNs). Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A tertiary university hospital in South Korea. Participants 410 patients with 410 incidentally detected SSNs who underwent surgical resection for the pulmonary adenocarcinoma spectrum between 2011 and 2015. Primary and secondary outcome measures Using clinical and radiological variables, the predicted probability of MIA/IPA was calculated from pre-existing logistic models (Brock and Lee models). Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUCs) were calculated and compared between models. Performance metrics including sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were also obtained. Results For pure ground-glass nodules (n=101), the AUC of the Brock model in differentiating MIA/IPA (59/101) from preinvasive lesions (42/101) was 0.671. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV based on the optimal cut-off value were 64.4%, 64.3%, 64.4%, 71.7% and 56.3%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV according to the Lee criteria were 76.3%, 42.9%, 62.4%, 65.2% and 56.3%, respectively. AUC was not obtained for the Lee model as a single cut-off of nodule size (≥10 mm) was suggested by this model for the assessment of pure ground-glass nodules. For part-solid nodules (n=309; 26 preinvasive lesions and 283 MIA/IPAs), the AUC was 0.746 for the Brock model and 0.771 for the Lee model (p=0.574). Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV were 82.3%, 53.8%, 79.9%, 95.1% and 21.9%, respectively, for the Brock model and 77.0%, 69.2%, 76.4%, 96.5% and 21.7%, respectively, for the Lee model. Conclusions The performance of prediction models for the incidentally detected SSNs in differentiating MIA/IPA from preinvasive lesions might be suboptimal. Thus, an alternative risk calculation model is required for the incidentally detected SSNs.
    Keywords: Open access, Oncology
    Electronic ISSN: 2044-6055
    Topics: Medicine
    Published by BMJ Publishing
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  • 5
    Keywords: ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; STEM-CELLS ; EXPRESSION PATTERNS ; B-CELL LYMPHOMAS ; NON-HODGKIN-LYMPHOMA ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; INACTIVATING MUTATIONS ; HISTONE METHYLTRANSFERASE EZH2 ; REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 ; GROUP PROTEINS
    Abstract: The histone methyltransferase EZH2 is frequently mutated in germinal center-derived diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. To further characterize these EZH2 mutations in lymphomagenesis, we generated a mouse line where EZH2(Y641F) is expressed from a lymphocyte-specific promoter. Spleen cells isolated from the transgenic mice displayed a global increase in trimethylated H3K27, but the mice did not show an increased tendency to develop lymphoma. As EZH2 mutations often coincide with other mutations in lymphoma, we combined the expression of EZH2(Y641F) by crossing these transgenic mice with Emicro-Myc transgenic mice. We observed a dramatic acceleration of lymphoma development in this combination model of Myc and EZH2(Y641F). The lymphomas show histologic features of high-grade disease with a shift toward a more mature B-cell phenotype, increased cycling and gene expression, and epigenetic changes involving important pathways in B-cell regulation and function. Furthermore, they initiate disease in secondary recipients. In summary, EZH2(Y641F) can collaborate with Myc to accelerate lymphomagenesis demonstrating a cooperative role of EZH2 mutations in oncogenesis. This murine lymphoma model provides a new tool to study global changes in the epigenome caused by this frequent mutation and a promising model system for testing novel treatments.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 24802772
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Transposable elements ; Activator ; Maize ; Arabidopsis ; Mapping
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We have investigated the pattern of transposition of an intact, 4.6-kbAc element inArabidopsis thaliana. Because the trans-acting transposition function (transposase) ofAc is not fully penetrant in Arabidopsis, it is not possible to use it as a diagnostic feature to scoreAc genetically, as has been done in maize and tobacco. Instead, the presence or absence of a transposedAc (trAc) was monitored by Southern blots. Germinal transpositions from the marker SPT::Ac were selected using a streptomycin germination assay and scored for the presence of atrAc. Segregation of thetrAc element and the SPT donor locus was scored in the F2 progeny of the germinal revertants, and the recombination fraction between thetrAc element and SPT was estimated by the method of maximum likelihood. We have found that, as in maize and tobacco, receptor sites fortrAcs in Arabidopsis tend to be linked to theAc donor locus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Antiestrogens ; antiestrogen-binding protein ; cell proliferation ; fatty acids ; lymphocytes ; estrogen receptor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Nonsteroidal antiestrogens reversibly and specifically inhibited the proliferation of two estrogen receptornegative lymphoid cell lines (EL4 and Raji) in a dose-dependent manner. [3H]Thymidine incorporation of concanavalin A-stimulated primary splenocytes was also inhibited by 10−6 M clomiphene (1-[4-(2-diethylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-diphenyl-2-chloroethylene). The antiproliferative effect could be prevented by the simultaneous presence in the growth medium of 10−5 M linoleic acid or 10−5 M arachidonic acid but not by 10−6 M estradiol. Both lymphoid cell lines had high affinity antiestrogen-binding sites whose affinity could be altered by conditions of growth. Growth of EL4 cells in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with charcoal-pretreated 5% fetal calf serum (charcoal-stripped medium) resulted in significantly higher affinity (Kd 0.54 nM±0.11 nM; n=6) than growth in medium supplemented with untreated serum (complete medium) (Kd=1.68 nM±0.48 nM; n=6) (p〈0.001). This change in affinity was partly due to removal of fatty acids from the growth medium by charcoal pretreatment, since addition of 10−5 M linoleic acid or 10−5 M gamma-linolenic to charcoal-stripped medium decreased the affinity of the antiestrogen-binding protein. In contrast, growth in 10−5 M stearic acid or 10−5 M oleic acid did not significantly alter the affinity of the antiestrogen-binding protein, whereas 10−5 M palmitic acid significantly increased its affinity. The same fatty acids were also tested for their intrinsic effects on EL4 cell proliferation. Oleic, linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids were growth stimulatory while stearic and palmitic acids were not. Thus linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids whose presence in the growth medium was associated with decreased affinity of [3H]tamoxifen (1-[4-(2-dimethylaminoethoxy)phenyl]-1,2-diphenylbut-1(Z)-ene) binding to the intracellular antiestrogen-binding protein were also growth stimulatory. Unsaturated fatty acids have previously been shown to inhibit binding of [3H]tamoxifen to the antiestrogen-binding protein in a cell-free system. The present observations demonstrate that unsaturated fatty acids also modify the affinity of the antiestrogen-binding protein in intact cells.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The chemical environment is one aspect of the oral environment, which could have an appreciable influence on the in vivo degradation of composite restoratives. The effects of chemical media on surface hardness of four composite restoratives (Silux [SX], Z100 [ZO], Ariston [AR] and Surefil [SF]) were investigated. The relationship between hardness and the thickness of the degradation layer was also studied. Thirty six specimens (3 × 4 × 2 mm) were made for each material. Following polymerization, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37 °C for 24 h. The specimens were then randomly divided into six groups of six, subjected to microhardness testing (load = 500 gf, dwell time = 15 s) and stored in the following chemicals for 1 week at 37 °C: artificial saliva (S), distilled water (W), 0˙02 N citric acid (C), 0˙02 N lactic acid (L), heptane (H) and 75–25% ethanol–water solution (E). After conditioning, the specimens were again subjected to hardness testing and sectioned. Change in hardness (DH) was computed and the thickness of the degradation layer (DL) was measured using a computerized image analysis system at 600× magnification. Results of statistical analysis (ANOVA/Scheffe’s [P 〈 0˙05]) of DH based on materials were as follows: SX – E 〉 all other mediums; ZO – W 〉 C; and AR – S, W, E 〉 H (〉 indicates significantly greater hardness change). No significant difference in DH was observed between the different chemicals for SF. The effects of chemical media on DH were found to be material dependent. A significant but weak positive correlation (Pearson’s correlation [P 〈 0˙05]) exists between change in hardness and thickness of the degradation layer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Key words.Fugu; HSP70; MHC; sequence analysis; linkage relationships.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Twelve cosmids containing sequences resembling genes encoding members of the 70-kDa heat-shock protein family, HSP70, have been isolated from Fugu rubripes. They can be broadly divided into three groups of overlapping cosmids. Restriction analysis and sequencing of one set of five cosmids have revealed five intronless Fugu HSP70 genes spanning 42 kb, arranged in a combined head-to-head, tail-to-tail and head-to-tail orientation. The levels of DNA and amino acid identity are very high with respect to one another, and are most similar to HSP70 sequences linked to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region in other species. Putative heat-shock consensus elements are identified. Non-HSP70 sequences with homology to known genes have been found physically linked to this Fugu HSP70 cluster: the Drosophila melanogaster SOL gene, the Drosophila melanogaster nemo gene, the Caenorhabditis elegans T17E9.1 gene and the sequence encoding the serine protease domain. The linkage relationships described here so far bear no resemblance to those of HSP70 in other organisms. Convergence of mammalian HSP70 and MHC class I and II loci probably occurred after fish had diverged.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 57 (1990), S. 2294-2296 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Inhomogeneities in waveguide dimensions are a serious problem for guided-wave frequency conversion devices. We discuss waveguide designs that make the phase matching "noncritical'' with respect to small changes in dimensions. Application of noncritical phase matching results in larger fabrication tolerances, facilitating the practical realization of nonlinear devices with long interaction lengths. We experimentally demonstrate the existence of a noncritical thickness in a lithium niobate waveguide, and analyze the dimensional tolerances for second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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