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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: All cancers carry somatic mutations in their genomes. A subset, known as driver mutations, confer clonal selective advantage on cancer cells and are causally implicated in oncogenesis, and the remainder are passenger mutations. The driver mutations and mutational processes operative in breast cancer have not yet been comprehensively explored. Here we examine the genomes of 100 tumours for somatic copy number changes and mutations in the coding exons of protein-coding genes. The number of somatic mutations varied markedly between individual tumours. We found strong correlations between mutation number, age at which cancer was diagnosed and cancer histological grade, and observed multiple mutational signatures, including one present in about ten per cent of tumours characterized by numerous mutations of cytosine at TpC dinucleotides. Driver mutations were identified in several new cancer genes including AKT2, ARID1B, CASP8, CDKN1B, MAP3K1, MAP3K13, NCOR1, SMARCD1 and TBX3. Among the 100 tumours, we found driver mutations in at least 40 cancer genes and 73 different combinations of mutated cancer genes. The results highlight the substantial genetic diversity underlying this common disease.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428862/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3428862/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Stephens, Philip J -- Tarpey, Patrick S -- Davies, Helen -- Van Loo, Peter -- Greenman, Chris -- Wedge, David C -- Nik-Zainal, Serena -- Martin, Sancha -- Varela, Ignacio -- Bignell, Graham R -- Yates, Lucy R -- Papaemmanuil, Elli -- Beare, David -- Butler, Adam -- Cheverton, Angela -- Gamble, John -- Hinton, Jonathan -- Jia, Mingming -- Jayakumar, Alagu -- Jones, David -- Latimer, Calli -- Lau, King Wai -- McLaren, Stuart -- McBride, David J -- Menzies, Andrew -- Mudie, Laura -- Raine, Keiran -- Rad, Roland -- Chapman, Michael Spencer -- Teague, Jon -- Easton, Douglas -- Langerod, Anita -- Oslo Breast Cancer Consortium (OSBREAC) -- Lee, Ming Ta Michael -- Shen, Chen-Yang -- Tee, Benita Tan Kiat -- Huimin, Bernice Wong -- Broeks, Annegien -- Vargas, Ana Cristina -- Turashvili, Gulisa -- Martens, John -- Fatima, Aquila -- Miron, Penelope -- Chin, Suet-Feung -- Thomas, Gilles -- Boyault, Sandrine -- Mariani, Odette -- Lakhani, Sunil R -- van de Vijver, Marc -- van 't Veer, Laura -- Foekens, John -- Desmedt, Christine -- Sotiriou, Christos -- Tutt, Andrew -- Caldas, Carlos -- Reis-Filho, Jorge S -- Aparicio, Samuel A J R -- Salomon, Anne Vincent -- Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise -- Richardson, Andrea L -- Campbell, Peter J -- Futreal, P Andrew -- Stratton, Michael R -- 077012/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 088340/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 093867/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 10118/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CA089393/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- P30 CA016672/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- WT088340MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Chief Scientist Office/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 May 16;486(7403):400-4. doi: 10.1038/nature11017.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722201" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Age Factors ; Breast Neoplasms/classification/*genetics/pathology ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/*genetics ; Cytosine/metabolism ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Female ; Humans ; JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasm Grading ; Oncogenes/*genetics ; Reproducibility of Results ; Signal Transduction/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-04-02
    Description: Cancers emerge from an ongoing Darwinian evolutionary process, often leading to multiple competing subclones within a single primary tumour. This evolutionary process culminates in the formation of metastases, which is the cause of 90% of cancer-related deaths. However, despite its clinical importance, little is known about the principles governing the dissemination of cancer cells to distant organs. Although the hypothesis that each metastasis originates from a single tumour cell is generally supported, recent studies using mouse models of cancer demonstrated the existence of polyclonal seeding from and interclonal cooperation between multiple subclones. Here we sought definitive evidence for the existence of polyclonal seeding in human malignancy and to establish the clonal relationship among different metastases in the context of androgen-deprived metastatic prostate cancer. Using whole-genome sequencing, we characterized multiple metastases arising from prostate tumours in ten patients. Integrated analyses of subclonal architecture revealed the patterns of metastatic spread in unprecedented detail. Metastasis-to-metastasis spread was found to be common, either through de novo monoclonal seeding of daughter metastases or, in five cases, through the transfer of multiple tumour clones between metastatic sites. Lesions affecting tumour suppressor genes usually occur as single events, whereas mutations in genes involved in androgen receptor signalling commonly involve multiple, convergent events in different metastases. Our results elucidate in detail the complex patterns of metastatic spread and further our understanding of the development of resistance to androgen-deprivation therapy in prostate cancer.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413032/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413032/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Gundem, Gunes -- Van Loo, Peter -- Kremeyer, Barbara -- Alexandrov, Ludmil B -- Tubio, Jose M C -- Papaemmanuil, Elli -- Brewer, Daniel S -- Kallio, Heini M L -- Hognas, Gunilla -- Annala, Matti -- Kivinummi, Kati -- Goody, Victoria -- Latimer, Calli -- O'Meara, Sarah -- Dawson, Kevin J -- Isaacs, William -- Emmert-Buck, Michael R -- Nykter, Matti -- Foster, Christopher -- Kote-Jarai, Zsofia -- Easton, Douglas -- Whitaker, Hayley C -- ICGC Prostate UK Group -- Neal, David E -- Cooper, Colin S -- Eeles, Rosalind A -- Visakorpi, Tapio -- Campbell, Peter J -- McDermott, Ultan -- Wedge, David C -- Bova, G Steven -- 077012/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- A12758/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- A14835/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- CA92234/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2015 Apr 16;520(7547):353-7. doi: 10.1038/nature14347. Epub 2015 Apr 1.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. ; 1] Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK [2] Department of Human Genetics, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49 Box 602, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium [3] Cancer Research UK London Research Institute, London WC2A 3LY, UK. ; 1] Norwich Medical School and Department of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK [2] The Genome Analysis Centre, Norwich NR4 7UH, UK. ; Institute of Biosciences and Medical Technology, BioMediTech, University of Tampere and Fimlab Laboratories, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere FI-33520, Finland. ; The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287, USA. ; Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Maryland 20892, USA. ; University of Liverpool and HCA Pathology Laboratories, London WC1E 6JA, UK. ; Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, The Institute Of Cancer Research, London SW7 3RP, UK. ; Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB1 8RN, UK. ; Uro-oncology Research Group, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK. ; 1] Uro-oncology Research Group, Cancer Research UK Cambridge Institute, Cambridge CB2 0RE, UK [2] Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK. ; 1] Norwich Medical School and Department of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK [2] Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, The Institute Of Cancer Research, London SW7 3RP, UK. ; 1] Division of Genetics and Epidemiology, The Institute Of Cancer Research, London SW7 3RP, UK [2] Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SW3 6JJ, UK; and Sutton SM2 5PT, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25830880" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Androgens/deficiency ; *Cell Lineage/genetics ; Clone Cells/metabolism/pathology ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Disease Progression ; Epigenesis, Genetic ; Genes, Tumor Suppressor ; Humans ; Male ; Neoplasm Metastasis/genetics/*pathology ; Prostatic Neoplasms/genetics/metabolism/*pathology ; Receptors, Androgen/metabolism ; Signal Transduction/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-16
    Description: All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776390/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776390/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Alexandrov, Ludmil B -- Nik-Zainal, Serena -- Wedge, David C -- Aparicio, Samuel A J R -- Behjati, Sam -- Biankin, Andrew V -- Bignell, Graham R -- Bolli, Niccolo -- Borg, Ake -- Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise -- Boyault, Sandrine -- Burkhardt, Birgit -- Butler, Adam P -- Caldas, Carlos -- Davies, Helen R -- Desmedt, Christine -- Eils, Roland -- Eyfjord, Jorunn Erla -- Foekens, John A -- Greaves, Mel -- Hosoda, Fumie -- Hutter, Barbara -- Ilicic, Tomislav -- Imbeaud, Sandrine -- Imielinski, Marcin -- Jager, Natalie -- Jones, David T W -- Jones, David -- Knappskog, Stian -- Kool, Marcel -- Lakhani, Sunil R -- Lopez-Otin, Carlos -- Martin, Sancha -- Munshi, Nikhil C -- Nakamura, Hiromi -- Northcott, Paul A -- Pajic, Marina -- Papaemmanuil, Elli -- Paradiso, Angelo -- Pearson, John V -- Puente, Xose S -- Raine, Keiran -- Ramakrishna, Manasa -- Richardson, Andrea L -- Richter, Julia -- Rosenstiel, Philip -- Schlesner, Matthias -- Schumacher, Ton N -- Span, Paul N -- Teague, Jon W -- Totoki, Yasushi -- Tutt, Andrew N J -- Valdes-Mas, Rafael -- van Buuren, Marit M -- van 't Veer, Laura -- Vincent-Salomon, Anne -- Waddell, Nicola -- Yates, Lucy R -- Australian Pancreatic Cancer Genome Initiative -- ICGC Breast Cancer Consortium -- ICGC MMML-Seq Consortium -- ICGC PedBrain -- Zucman-Rossi, Jessica -- Futreal, P Andrew -- McDermott, Ultan -- Lichter, Peter -- Meyerson, Matthew -- Grimmond, Sean M -- Siebert, Reiner -- Campo, Elias -- Shibata, Tatsuhiro -- Pfister, Stefan M -- Campbell, Peter J -- Stratton, Michael R -- 088340/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 093867/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 098051/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- T32 CA009216/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Aug 22;500(7463):415-21. doi: 10.1038/nature12477. Epub 2013 Aug 14.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire CB10 1SA, UK.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23945592" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Aging/genetics ; Algorithms ; Cell Transformation, Neoplastic/*genetics/pathology ; Cytidine Deaminase/genetics ; DNA/genetics/metabolism ; DNA Mutational Analysis ; Humans ; Models, Genetic ; Mutagenesis/*genetics ; Mutagenesis, Insertional/genetics ; Mutagens/pharmacology ; Mutation/*genetics ; Neoplasms/enzymology/*genetics/pathology ; Organ Specificity ; Reproducibility of Results ; Sequence Deletion/genetics ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2014-03-29
    Description: Changes in gene dosage are a major driver of cancer, known to be caused by a finite, but increasingly well annotated, repertoire of mutational mechanisms. This can potentially generate correlated copy-number alterations across hundreds of linked genes, as exemplified by the 2% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) with recurrent amplification of megabase regions of chromosome 21 (iAMP21). We used genomic, cytogenetic and transcriptional analysis, coupled with novel bioinformatic approaches, to reconstruct the evolution of iAMP21 ALL. Here we show that individuals born with the rare constitutional Robertsonian translocation between chromosomes 15 and 21, rob(15;21)(q10;q10)c, have approximately 2,700-fold increased risk of developing iAMP21 ALL compared to the general population. In such cases, amplification is initiated by a chromothripsis event involving both sister chromatids of the Robertsonian chromosome, a novel mechanism for cancer predisposition. In sporadic iAMP21, breakage-fusion-bridge cycles are typically the initiating event, often followed by chromothripsis. In both sporadic and rob(15;21)c-associated iAMP21, the final stages frequently involve duplications of the entire abnormal chromosome. The end-product is a derivative of chromosome 21 or the rob(15;21)c chromosome with gene dosage optimized for leukaemic potential, showing constrained copy-number levels over multiple linked genes. Thus, dicentric chromosomes may be an important precipitant of chromothripsis, as we show rob(15;21)c to be constitutionally dicentric and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles generate dicentric chromosomes somatically. Furthermore, our data illustrate that several cancer-specific mutational processes, applied sequentially, can coordinate to fashion copy-number profiles over large genomic scales, incrementally refining the fitness benefits of aggregated gene dosage changes.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976272/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3976272/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Li, Yilong -- Schwab, Claire -- Ryan, Sarra L -- Papaemmanuil, Elli -- Robinson, Hazel M -- Jacobs, Patricia -- Moorman, Anthony V -- Dyer, Sara -- Borrow, Julian -- Griffiths, Mike -- Heerema, Nyla A -- Carroll, Andrew J -- Talley, Polly -- Bown, Nick -- Telford, Nick -- Ross, Fiona M -- Gaunt, Lorraine -- McNally, Richard J Q -- Young, Bryan D -- Sinclair, Paul -- Rand, Vikki -- Teixeira, Manuel R -- Joseph, Olivia -- Robinson, Ben -- Maddison, Mark -- Dastugue, Nicole -- Vandenberghe, Peter -- Haferlach, Claudia -- Stephens, Philip J -- Cheng, Jiqiu -- Van Loo, Peter -- Stratton, Michael R -- Campbell, Peter J -- Harrison, Christine J -- 077012/Z/05/Z/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 088340/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 093867/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- U10 CA098543/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- U10 CA180886/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- WT088340MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2014 Apr 3;508(7494):98-102. doi: 10.1038/nature13115. Epub 2014 Mar 23.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK [2]. ; 1] Leukaemia Research Cytogenetics Group, Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK [2]. ; Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK. ; West Midlands Regional Genetics Laboratory, Birmingham Women's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B15 2TG, UK. ; Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, Salisbury NHS Foundation Trust, Salisbury SP2 8BJ, UK. ; Leukaemia Research Cytogenetics Group, Northern Institute for Cancer Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4HH, UK. ; 1] West Midlands Regional Genetics Laboratory, Birmingham Women's NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham B15 2TG, UK [2] School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK. ; Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. ; Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35233, USA. ; Sheffield Diagnostic Genetics Service, Sheffield Children's NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield S10 2TH, UK. ; Cytogenetics Laboratory, Northern Genetics Service, Newcastle upon Tyne NE7 7DN, UK. ; Oncology Cytogenetics, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester M20 4BX, UK. ; Regional Cytogenetics Unit, Genetic Medicine, Central Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Saint Mary's Hospital, Manchester M13 9WL, UK. ; Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK. ; 1] Genetics Department, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto University, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal [2] Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal. ; Laboratoire d'Hematologie, Genetique des Hemopathies, Hopital Purpan, 31059 Toulouse, France. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics, University Hospital Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium [2] KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; MLL Munich Leukemia Laboratory, Munich 81377, Germany. ; 1] Center for Human Genetics, University Hospital Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium [2] KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium [3] Department of Electrical Engineering - ESAT, University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; 1] Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK [2] Center for Human Genetics, University Hospital Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium [3] KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium. ; 1] Cancer Genome Project, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton CB10 1SA, UK [2] Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 2XY, UK [3].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24670643" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Chromatids/genetics ; *Chromosome Aberrations ; Chromosome Breakage ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15/genetics ; Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21/*genetics ; DNA Copy Number Variations/genetics ; Humans ; Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/*genetics ; Recombination, Genetic/genetics ; Translocation, Genetic/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-08-02
    Description: Long interspersed nuclear element-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile repetitive elements that are abundant in the human genome. L1 elements propagate through RNA intermediates. In the germ line, neighboring, nonrepetitive sequences are occasionally mobilized by the L1 machinery, a process called 3' transduction. Because 3' transductions are potentially mutagenic, we explored the extent to which they occur somatically during tumorigenesis. Studying cancer genomes from 244 patients, we found that tumors from 53% of the patients had somatic retrotranspositions, of which 24% were 3' transductions. Fingerprinting of donor L1s revealed that a handful of source L1 elements in a tumor can spawn from tens to hundreds of 3' transductions, which can themselves seed further retrotranspositions. The activity of individual L1 elements fluctuated during tumor evolution and correlated with L1 promoter hypomethylation. The 3' transductions disseminated genes, exons, and regulatory elements to new locations, most often to heterochromatic regions of the genome.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4380235/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4380235/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Tubio, Jose M C -- Li, Yilong -- Ju, Young Seok -- Martincorena, Inigo -- Cooke, Susanna L -- Tojo, Marta -- Gundem, Gunes -- Pipinikas, Christodoulos P -- Zamora, Jorge -- Raine, Keiran -- Menzies, Andrew -- Roman-Garcia, Pablo -- Fullam, Anthony -- Gerstung, Moritz -- Shlien, Adam -- Tarpey, Patrick S -- Papaemmanuil, Elli -- Knappskog, Stian -- Van Loo, Peter -- Ramakrishna, Manasa -- Davies, Helen R -- Marshall, John -- Wedge, David C -- Teague, Jon W -- Butler, Adam P -- Nik-Zainal, Serena -- Alexandrov, Ludmil -- Behjati, Sam -- Yates, Lucy R -- Bolli, Niccolo -- Mudie, Laura -- Hardy, Claire -- Martin, Sancha -- McLaren, Stuart -- O'Meara, Sarah -- Anderson, Elizabeth -- Maddison, Mark -- Gamble, Stephen -- ICGC Breast Cancer Group -- ICGC Bone Cancer Group -- ICGC Prostate Cancer Group -- Foster, Christopher -- Warren, Anne Y -- Whitaker, Hayley -- Brewer, Daniel -- Eeles, Rosalind -- Cooper, Colin -- Neal, David -- Lynch, Andy G -- Visakorpi, Tapio -- Isaacs, William B -- van't Veer, Laura -- Caldas, Carlos -- Desmedt, Christine -- Sotiriou, Christos -- Aparicio, Sam -- Foekens, John A -- Eyfjord, Jorunn Erla -- Lakhani, Sunil R -- Thomas, Gilles -- Myklebost, Ola -- Span, Paul N -- Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise -- Richardson, Andrea L -- Van de Vijver, Marc -- Vincent-Salomon, Anne -- Van den Eynden, Gert G -- Flanagan, Adrienne M -- Futreal, P Andrew -- Janes, Sam M -- Bova, G Steven -- Stratton, Michael R -- McDermott, Ultan -- Campbell, Peter J -- 088340/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 091730/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- 14835/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- C5047/A14835/Cancer Research UK/United Kingdom -- G0900871/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- P30 CA006973/CA/NCI NIH HHS/ -- WT100183MA/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- Department of Health/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2014 Aug 1;345(6196):1251343. doi: 10.1126/science.1251343.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK. ; Department of Physiology, School of Medicine-Center for Resesarch in Molecular Medicine and Chronic Diseases, Instituto de Investigaciones Sanitarias, University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. ; Lungs for Living Research Centre, Rayne Institute, University College London (UCL), London, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK. Department of Clinical Science, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK. Human Genome Laboratory, Department of Human Genetics, VIB and KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK. Cambridge University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK. Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ; University of Liverpool and HCA Pathology Laboratories, London, UK. ; Cambridge University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK. ; Cancer Research UK (CRUK) Cambridge Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. ; Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, London, UK. University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. ; Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, London, UK. ; Institute of Biosciences and Medical Technology-BioMediTech, University of Tampere and Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland. ; Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA. ; Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Breast Cancer Translational Research Laboratory, Institut Jules Bordet, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium. ; British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, Canada. ; Department of Medical Oncology, Erasmus Medical Center Cancer Institute, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands. ; Cancer Research Laboratory, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland. ; School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. Pathology Queensland, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia. UQ Centre for Clinical Research, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. ; Universite Lyon 1, Institut National du Cancer (INCa)-Synergie, Lyon, France. ; Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. ; Department of Radiation Oncology and Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands. ; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. ; Institut Bergonie, 229 cours de l'Argone, 33076 Bordeaux, France. Institut Curie, Department of Tumor Biology, 26 rue d'Ulm, 75248 Paris cedex 05, France. ; Translational Cancer Research Unit and Department of Pathology, GZA Hospitals, Antwerp, Belgium. ; Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Middlesex, UK. UCL Cancer Institute, University College London, London, UK. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK. MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. ; Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, UK. Cambridge University Hospitals National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK. Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. pc8@sanger.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25082706" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Carcinogenesis/genetics ; Chromatin/chemistry ; *DNA Transposable Elements ; Exons ; Genome, Human ; Humans ; *Long Interspersed Nucleotide Elements ; Mutagenesis, Insertional ; Neoplasms/*genetics ; *Transduction, Genetic ; Translocation, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Keywords: GROWTH ; GENE ; PROTEINS ; FAMILY ; DELETION ; IKAROS
    Abstract: Recent genome-wide association data have implicated genetic variation at 7p12.2 (IKZF1), 10q21.2 (ARIDB5), and 14q11.2 (CEBPE) in the etiology of B-cell childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). To verify and further examine the relationship between these variants and ALL risk, we genotyped 1384 cases of precursor B-cell childhood ALL and 1877 controls from Germany and the United Kingdom. The combined data provided statistically significant support for an association between genotype at each of these loci and ALL risk; odds ratios (OR), 1.69 (P = 7.51 x10(-22)), 1.80 (P = 5.90 x 10(-28)), and 1.27 (P = 4.90 x 10(-6)), respectively. Furthermore, the risk of ALL increases with an increasing numbers of variant alleles for the 3 loci (OR(per-allele) = 1.53, 95% confidence interval, 1.44-1.62; P(trend) = 3.49 x 10(-42)), consistent with a polygenic model of disease susceptibility. These data provide unambiguous evidence for the role of these variants in defining ALL risk underscoring approximately 64% of cases.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20042726
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  • 7
    Keywords: PROSTATE-CANCER ; ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC-LEUKEMIA ; SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA ; LUNG ADENOCARCINOMA ; ACUTE MYELOID-LEUKEMIA ; SOMATIC MUTATIONS ; GENETIC LANDSCAPE ; 21 BREAST CANCERS ; RECURRENT MUTATIONS ; FREQUENT MUTATION
    Abstract: All cancers are caused by somatic mutations; however, understanding of the biological processes generating these mutations is limited. The catalogue of somatic mutations from a cancer genome bears the signatures of the mutational processes that have been operative. Here we analysed 4,938,362 mutations from 7,042 cancers and extracted more than 20 distinct mutational signatures. Some are present in many cancer types, notably a signature attributed to the APOBEC family of cytidine deaminases, whereas others are confined to a single cancer class. Certain signatures are associated with age of the patient at cancer diagnosis, known mutagenic exposures or defects in DNA maintenance, but many are of cryptic origin. In addition to these genome-wide mutational signatures, hypermutation localized to small genomic regions, 'kataegis', is found in many cancer types. The results reveal the diversity of mutational processes underlying the development of cancer, with potential implications for understanding of cancer aetiology, prevention and therapy.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 23945592
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  • 8
    Keywords: CELL ; RISK ; validation ; ASSOCIATION ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; VARIANTS ; genetics ; leukemia ; LOCI ; GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION ; Genetic
    Abstract: Using data from a genome-wide association study of 907 individuals with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (cases) and 2,398 controls and with validation in samples totaling 2,386 cases and 2,419 controls, we have shown that common variation at 9p21.3 (rs3731217, intron 1 of CDKN2A) influences acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk (odds ratio = 0.71, P = 3.01 x 10(-11)), irrespective of cell lineage
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 20453839
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-12-04
    Description: Purpose: In this era of precision-based medicine, for optimal patient care, results reported from commercial next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays should adequately reflect the burden of somatic mutations in the tumor being sequenced. Here, we sought to determine the prevalence of clonal hematopoiesis leading to possible misattribution of tumor mutation calls on unpaired Foundation Medicine NGS assays. Experimental Design: This was a retrospective cohort study of individuals undergoing NGS of solid tumors from two large cancer centers. We identified and quantified mutations in genes known to be frequently altered in clonal hematopoiesis ( DNMT3A, TET2, ASXL1, TP53, ATM, CHEK2, SF3B1, CBL, JAK2 ) that were returned to physicians on clinical Foundation Medicine reports. For a subset of patients, we explored the frequency of true clonal hematopoiesis by comparing mutations on Foundation Medicine reports with matched blood sequencing. Results: Mutations in genes that are frequently altered in clonal hematopoiesis were identified in 65% (1,139/1,757) of patients undergoing NGS. When excluding TP53 , which is often mutated in solid tumors, these events were still seen in 35% (619/1,757) of patients. Utilizing paired blood specimens, we were able to confirm that 8% (18/226) of mutations reported in these genes were true clonal hematopoiesis events. The majority of DNMT3A mutations (64%, 7/11) and minority of TP53 mutations (4%, 2/50) were clonal hematopoiesis. Conclusions: Clonal hematopoiesis mutations are commonly reported on unpaired NGS testing. It is important to recognize clonal hematopoiesis as a possible cause of misattribution of mutation origin when applying NGS findings to a patient's care. See related commentary by Pollyea, p. 5790
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-09-21
    Description: SF3B1 , SRSF2 , and U2AF1 are the most frequently mutated splicing factor genes in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). We have performed a comprehensive and systematic analysis to determine the effect of these commonly mutated splicing factors on pre-mRNA splicing in the bone marrow stem/progenitor cells and in the erythroid and myeloid precursors in splicing factor mutant MDS. Using RNA-seq, we determined the aberrantly spliced genes and dysregulated pathways in CD34 + cells of 84 patients with MDS. Splicing factor mutations result in different alterations in splicing and largely affect different genes, but these converge in common dysregulated pathways and cellular processes, focused on RNA splicing, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial dysfunction, suggesting common mechanisms of action in MDS. Many of these dysregulated pathways and cellular processes can be linked to the known disease pathophysiology associated with splicing factor mutations in MDS, whereas several others have not been previously associated with MDS, such as sirtuin signaling. We identified aberrantly spliced events associated with clinical variables, and isoforms that independently predict survival in MDS and implicate dysregulation of focal adhesion and extracellular exosomes as drivers of poor survival. Aberrantly spliced genes and dysregulated pathways were identified in the MDS-affected lineages in splicing factor mutant MDS. Functional studies demonstrated that knockdown of the mitosis regulators SEPT2 and AKAP8, aberrantly spliced target genes of SF3B1 and SRSF2 mutations, respectively, led to impaired erythroid cell growth and differentiation. This study illuminates the effect of the common spliceosome mutations on the MDS phenotype and provides novel insights into disease pathophysiology.
    Keywords: Plenary Papers, Free Research Articles, Myeloid Neoplasia, CME article
    Print ISSN: 0006-4971
    Electronic ISSN: 1528-0020
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
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