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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2011-07-21
    Description: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for the majority of cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters as well as the senses of sight, olfaction and taste. The paradigm of GPCR signalling is the activation of a heterotrimeric GTP binding protein (G protein) by an agonist-occupied receptor. The beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) activation of Gs, the stimulatory G protein for adenylyl cyclase, has long been a model system for GPCR signalling. Here we present the crystal structure of the active state ternary complex composed of agonist-occupied monomeric beta(2)AR and nucleotide-free Gs heterotrimer. The principal interactions between the beta(2)AR and Gs involve the amino- and carboxy-terminal alpha-helices of Gs, with conformational changes propagating to the nucleotide-binding pocket. The largest conformational changes in the beta(2)AR include a 14 A outward movement at the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 6 (TM6) and an alpha-helical extension of the cytoplasmic end of TM5. The most surprising observation is a major displacement of the alpha-helical domain of Galphas relative to the Ras-like GTPase domain. This crystal structure represents the first high-resolution view of transmembrane signalling by a GPCR.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184188/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3184188/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rasmussen, Soren G F -- DeVree, Brian T -- Zou, Yaozhong -- Kruse, Andrew C -- Chung, Ka Young -- Kobilka, Tong Sun -- Thian, Foon Sun -- Chae, Pil Seok -- Pardon, Els -- Calinski, Diane -- Mathiesen, Jesper M -- Shah, Syed T A -- Lyons, Joseph A -- Caffrey, Martin -- Gellman, Samuel H -- Steyaert, Jan -- Skiniotis, Georgios -- Weis, William I -- Sunahara, Roger K -- Kobilka, Brian K -- GM083118/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM56169/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM75915/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS028471/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM75913/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P50GM073210/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P60DK-20572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603-01/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603-02/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603-03/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603-05/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- T32-GM008270/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54 GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U54GM094599/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jul 19;477(7366):549-55. doi: 10.1038/nature10361.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21772288" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/chemistry/metabolism ; Animals ; Catalytic Domain ; Cattle ; Crystallization ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Enzyme Activation ; GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Multiprotein Complexes/chemistry/metabolism ; Protein Binding ; Rats ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/*chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-11-22
    Description: Despite recent advances in crystallography and the availability of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structures, little is known about the mechanism of their activation process, as only the beta2 adrenergic receptor (beta2AR) and rhodopsin have been crystallized in fully active conformations. Here we report the structure of an agonist-bound, active state of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor stabilized by a G-protein mimetic camelid antibody fragment isolated by conformational selection using yeast surface display. In addition to the expected changes in the intracellular surface, the structure reveals larger conformational changes in the extracellular region and orthosteric binding site than observed in the active states of the beta2AR and rhodopsin. We also report the structure of the M2 receptor simultaneously bound to the orthosteric agonist iperoxo and the positive allosteric modulator LY2119620. This structure reveals that LY2119620 recognizes a largely pre-formed binding site in the extracellular vestibule of the iperoxo-bound receptor, inducing a slight contraction of this outer binding pocket. These structures offer important insights into the activation mechanism and allosteric modulation of muscarinic receptors.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020789/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4020789/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kruse, Andrew C -- Ring, Aaron M -- Manglik, Aashish -- Hu, Jianxin -- Hu, Kelly -- Eitel, Katrin -- Hubner, Harald -- Pardon, Els -- Valant, Celine -- Sexton, Patrick M -- Christopoulos, Arthur -- Felder, Christian C -- Gmeiner, Peter -- Steyaert, Jan -- Weis, William I -- Garcia, K Christopher -- Wess, Jurgen -- Kobilka, Brian K -- GM08311806/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS02847123/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM008294/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 GM106990/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 5;504(7478):101-6. doi: 10.1038/nature12735. Epub 2013 Nov 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA [2].〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24256733" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Allosteric Regulation ; Binding Sites ; Cytoplasm/metabolism ; Humans ; Isoxazoles/chemistry/metabolism ; *Models, Molecular ; Protein Binding ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Quaternary Ammonium Compounds/chemistry/metabolism ; Receptors, Muscarinic/*chemistry/*metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-01-14
    Description: G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit a spectrum of functional behaviours in response to natural and synthetic ligands. Recent crystal structures provide insights into inactive states of several GPCRs. Efforts to obtain an agonist-bound active-state GPCR structure have proven difficult due to the inherent instability of this state in the absence of a G protein. We generated a camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) to the human beta(2) adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) that exhibits G protein-like behaviour, and obtained an agonist-bound, active-state crystal structure of the receptor-nanobody complex. Comparison with the inactive beta(2)AR structure reveals subtle changes in the binding pocket; however, these small changes are associated with an 11 A outward movement of the cytoplasmic end of transmembrane segment 6, and rearrangements of transmembrane segments 5 and 7 that are remarkably similar to those observed in opsin, an active form of rhodopsin. This structure provides insights into the process of agonist binding and activation.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058308/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3058308/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rasmussen, Soren G F -- Choi, Hee-Jung -- Fung, Juan Jose -- Pardon, Els -- Casarosa, Paola -- Chae, Pil Seok -- Devree, Brian T -- Rosenbaum, Daniel M -- Thian, Foon Sun -- Kobilka, Tong Sun -- Schnapp, Andreas -- Konetzki, Ingo -- Sunahara, Roger K -- Gellman, Samuel H -- Pautsch, Alexander -- Steyaert, Jan -- Weis, William I -- Kobilka, Brian K -- GM083118/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- GM56169/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- NS028471/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 GM75913/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- P60DK-20572/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM068603/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083118/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 GM083118-04/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS028471/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R37 NS028471-21/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2011 Jan 13;469(7329):175-80. doi: 10.1038/nature09648.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Molecular and Cellular Physiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21228869" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor ; Agonists/*chemistry/immunology/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Animals ; Binding Sites ; Camelids, New World ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Drug Inverse Agonism ; Humans ; Immunoglobulin Fragments/*chemistry/*immunology/metabolism/pharmacology ; Ligands ; Models, Molecular ; Movement/drug effects ; Nanostructures/*chemistry ; Opsins/agonists/chemistry/metabolism ; Propanolamines/chemistry/metabolism/pharmacology ; Protein Conformation/drug effects ; Protein Stability/drug effects ; Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-2/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Viral Proteins/chemistry/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-06-23
    Description: S-layers are regular two-dimensional semipermeable protein layers that constitute a major cell-wall component in archaea and many bacteria. The nanoscale repeat structure of the S-layer lattices and their self-assembly from S-layer proteins (SLPs) have sparked interest in their use as patterning and display scaffolds for a range of nano-biotechnological applications. Despite their biological abundance and the technological interest in them, structural information about SLPs is limited to truncated and assembly-negative proteins. Here we report the X-ray structure of the SbsB SLP of Geobacillus stearothermophilus PV72/p2 by the use of nanobody-aided crystallization. SbsB consists of a seven-domain protein, formed by an amino-terminal cell-wall attachment domain and six consecutive immunoglobulin-like domains, that organize into a phi-shaped disk-like monomeric crystallization unit stabilized by interdomain Ca(2+) ion coordination. A Ca(2+)-dependent switch to the condensed SbsB quaternary structure pre-positions intermolecular contact zones and renders the protein competent for S-layer assembly. On the basis of crystal packing, chemical crosslinking data and cryo-electron microscopy projections, we present a model for the molecular organization of this SLP into a porous protein sheet inside the S-layer. The SbsB lattice represents a previously undescribed structural model for protein assemblies and may advance our understanding of SLP physiology and self-assembly, as well as the rational design of engineered higher-order structures for biotechnology.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Baranova, Ekaterina -- Fronzes, Remi -- Garcia-Pino, Abel -- Van Gerven, Nani -- Papapostolou, David -- Pehau-Arnaudet, Gerard -- Pardon, Els -- Steyaert, Jan -- Howorka, Stefan -- Remaut, Han -- BB/E010466/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- England -- Nature. 2012 Jul 5;487(7405):119-22. doi: 10.1038/nature11155.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Structural and Molecular Microbiology, VIB Department of Structural Biology, VIB, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22722836" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Bacterial Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Calcium/chemistry/metabolism/*pharmacology ; Cryoelectron Microscopy ; Crystallization/methods ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Geobacillus stearothermophilus/*chemistry ; Immunoglobulins/chemistry ; Membrane Proteins/*chemistry/*metabolism ; Models, Molecular ; Molecular Dynamics Simulation ; Nanostructures/chemistry ; Polymerization/drug effects ; Protein Structure, Quaternary/drug effects ; Protein Structure, Tertiary/drug effects ; Solutions
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-10-10
    Description: Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase Vps34 complexes regulate intracellular membrane trafficking in endocytic sorting, cytokinesis, and autophagy. We present the 4.4 angstrom crystal structure of the 385-kilodalton endosomal complex II (PIK3C3-CII), consisting of Vps34, Vps15 (p150), Vps30/Atg6 (Beclin 1), and Vps38 (UVRAG). The subunits form a Y-shaped complex, centered on the Vps34 C2 domain. Vps34 and Vps15 intertwine in one arm, where the Vps15 kinase domain engages the Vps34 activation loop to regulate its activity. Vps30 and Vps38 form the other arm that brackets the Vps15/Vps34 heterodimer, suggesting a path for complex assembly. We used hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to reveal conformational changes accompanying membrane binding and identify a Vps30 loop that is critical for the ability of complex II to phosphorylate giant liposomes on which complex I is inactive.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4601532/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4601532/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rostislavleva, Ksenia -- Soler, Nicolas -- Ohashi, Yohei -- Zhang, Lufei -- Pardon, Els -- Burke, John E -- Masson, Glenn R -- Johnson, Chris -- Steyaert, Jan -- Ktistakis, Nicholas T -- Williams, Roger L -- BB/K019155/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- MC_U105184308/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- PG11/109/29247/British Heart Foundation/United Kingdom -- U105184308/Medical Research Council/United Kingdom -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 9;350(6257):aac7365. doi: 10.1126/science.aac7365.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. ; Structural Biology Research Center, VIB, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. Structural Biology Brussels, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium. ; The Babraham Institute, Cambridge, UK. ; Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge CB2 0QH, UK. rlw@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26450213" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Cell Membrane/chemistry/*enzymology ; Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases/chemistry/*ultrastructure ; Crystallography, X-Ray ; Endosomes/chemistry/*enzymology ; Protein Multimerization ; Protein Structure, Secondary ; Protein Structure, Tertiary ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/enzymology ; Vacuolar Sorting Protein VPS15/chemistry/ultrastructure
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Key words Lysozyme ; α-lactalbumin ; Chimera ; Circular dichroism ; Protein stability ; Molten globule
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract LYLA1 is a chimeric protein mainly consisting of residues originating from human lysozyme but in which the central part (Ca2+-binding site and helix C) of bovine α-lactalbumin has been inserted. The equilibrium unfolding of this hybrid protein has been examined by circular dichroism and tryptophan fluorescence techniques. The reversible denaturation process induced by temperature or by addition of chemical denaturant is three-state in the case of apo-LYLA1 and two-state in the presence of Ca2+. The Ca2+-bound form of the chimera exhibits higher stability than both wild-type lysozyme and α-lactalbumin. The stability of the apo-form, however, is intermediate between that of the parent molecules. Unfolding of apo-LYLA1 involves an intermediate state that becomes populated to a different extent under various experimental conditions. Combination of circular dichroism with bis-ANS fluorescence experiments has permitted us to characterize the acid state of LYLA1 as a molten globule. Furthermore our results strongly suggest the presence of multiple denatured states depending on external conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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