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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-01-14
    Description: Although water vapour is the main species observed in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and water is the major constituent of cometary nuclei, limited evidence for exposed water-ice regions on the surface of the nucleus has been found so far. The absence of large regions of exposed water ice seems a common finding on the surfaces of many of the comets observed so far. The nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko appears to be fairly uniformly coated with dark, dehydrated, refractory and organic-rich material. Here we report the identification at infrared wavelengths of water ice on two debris falls in the Imhotep region of the nucleus. The ice has been exposed on the walls of elevated structures and at the base of the walls. A quantitative derivation of the abundance of ice in these regions indicates the presence of millimetre-sized pure water-ice grains, considerably larger than in all previous observations. Although micrometre-sized water-ice grains are the usual result of vapour recondensation in ice-free layers, the occurrence of millimetre-sized grains of pure ice as observed in the Imhotep debris falls is best explained by grain growth by vapour diffusion in ice-rich layers, or by sintering. As a consequence of these processes, the nucleus can develop an extended and complex coating in which the outer dehydrated crust is superimposed on layers enriched in water ice. The stratigraphy observed on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is therefore the result of evolutionary processes affecting the uppermost metres of the nucleus and does not necessarily require a global layering to have occurred at the time of the comet's formation.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Filacchione, G -- De Sanctis, M C -- Capaccioni, F -- Raponi, A -- Tosi, F -- Ciarniello, M -- Cerroni, P -- Piccioni, G -- Capria, M T -- Palomba, E -- Bellucci, G -- Erard, S -- Bockelee-Morvan, D -- Leyrat, C -- Arnold, G -- Barucci, M A -- Fulchignoni, M -- Schmitt, B -- Quirico, E -- Jaumann, R -- Stephan, K -- Longobardo, A -- Mennella, V -- Migliorini, A -- Ammannito, E -- Benkhoff, J -- Bibring, J P -- Blanco, A -- Blecka, M I -- Carlson, R -- Carsenty, U -- Colangeli, L -- Combes, M -- Combi, M -- Crovisier, J -- Drossart, P -- Encrenaz, T -- Federico, C -- Fink, U -- Fonti, S -- Ip, W H -- Irwin, P -- Kuehrt, E -- Langevin, Y -- Magni, G -- McCord, T -- Moroz, L -- Mottola, S -- Orofino, V -- Schade, U -- Taylor, F -- Tiphene, D -- Tozzi, G P -- Beck, P -- Biver, N -- Bonal, L -- Combe, J-Ph -- Despan, D -- Flamini, E -- Formisano, M -- Fornasier, S -- Frigeri, A -- Grassi, D -- Gudipati, M S -- Kappel, D -- Mancarella, F -- Markus, K -- Merlin, F -- Orosei, R -- Rinaldi, G -- Cartacci, M -- Cicchetti, A -- Giuppi, S -- Hello, Y -- Henry, F -- Jacquinod, S -- Reess, J M -- Noschese, R -- Politi, R -- Peter, G -- England -- Nature. 2016 Jan 21;529(7586):368-72. doi: 10.1038/nature16190. Epub 2016 Jan 13.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉INAF-IAPS, Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Rome, Italy. ; LESIA, Observatoire de Paris/CNRS/UPMC/Universite Paris-Diderot, Meudon, France. ; Institute for Planetary Research, DLR, Berlin, Germany. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, France. ; INAF-Osservatorio di Capodimonte, Napoli, Italy. ; UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. ; European Space Agency-ESTEC, Noordwijk, The Netherlands. ; Institut d'Astrophysique Spatial CNRS, Orsay, France. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica "Ennio De Giorgi", Universita del Salento, Lecce, Italy. ; Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. ; NASA JPL, Pasadena, California, USA. ; Space Physics Research Laboratory, The University of Michigan, Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA. ; Universita di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. ; Lunar Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona, USA. ; National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan. ; Department of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. ; Bear Fight Institute, Winthrop, Washington, USA. ; Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Germany. ; INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy. ; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Rome, Italy. ; Istituto di Radioastronomia-INAF, Bologna, Italy. ; Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, DLR, Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26760209" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-01-24
    Description: The VIRTIS (Visible, Infrared and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the Rosetta spacecraft has provided evidence of carbon-bearing compounds on the nucleus of the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The very low reflectance of the nucleus (normal albedo of 0.060 +/- 0.003 at 0.55 micrometers), the spectral slopes in visible and infrared ranges (5 to 25 and 1.5 to 5% kA(-1)), and the broad absorption feature in the 2.9-to-3.6-micrometer range present across the entire illuminated surface are compatible with opaque minerals associated with nonvolatile organic macromolecular materials: a complex mixture of various types of carbon-hydrogen and/or oxygen-hydrogen chemical groups, with little contribution of nitrogen-hydrogen groups. In active areas, the changes in spectral slope and absorption feature width may suggest small amounts of water-ice. However, no ice-rich patches are observed, indicating a generally dehydrated nature for the surface currently illuminated by the Sun.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Capaccioni, F -- Coradini, A -- Filacchione, G -- Erard, S -- Arnold, G -- Drossart, P -- De Sanctis, M C -- Bockelee-Morvan, D -- Capria, M T -- Tosi, F -- Leyrat, C -- Schmitt, B -- Quirico, E -- Cerroni, P -- Mennella, V -- Raponi, A -- Ciarniello, M -- McCord, T -- Moroz, L -- Palomba, E -- Ammannito, E -- Barucci, M A -- Bellucci, G -- Benkhoff, J -- Bibring, J P -- Blanco, A -- Blecka, M -- Carlson, R -- Carsenty, U -- Colangeli, L -- Combes, M -- Combi, M -- Crovisier, J -- Encrenaz, T -- Federico, C -- Fink, U -- Fonti, S -- Ip, W H -- Irwin, P -- Jaumann, R -- Kuehrt, E -- Langevin, Y -- Magni, G -- Mottola, S -- Orofino, V -- Palumbo, P -- Piccioni, G -- Schade, U -- Taylor, F -- Tiphene, D -- Tozzi, G P -- Beck, P -- Biver, N -- Bonal, L -- Combe, J-Ph -- Despan, D -- Flamini, E -- Fornasier, S -- Frigeri, A -- Grassi, D -- Gudipati, M -- Longobardo, A -- Markus, K -- Merlin, F -- Orosei, R -- Rinaldi, G -- Stephan, K -- Cartacci, M -- Cicchetti, A -- Giuppi, S -- Hello, Y -- Henry, F -- Jacquinod, S -- Noschese, R -- Peter, G -- Politi, R -- Reess, J M -- Semery, A -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 23;347(6220):aaa0628. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa0628.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Rome, Italy. fabrizio.capaccioni@iaps.inaf.it. ; Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Rome, Italy. ; Laboratoire d'Etudes Spatiales et d'Instrumentation en Astrophysique, Observatoire de Paris/CNRS/Universite Pierre et Marie Curie[acute accent over last letter in "Universite"]/Universite Paris-Diderot, Meudon, France. ; Institute for Planetary Research, Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Berlin, Germany. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Institut de Planetologie et d'Astrophysique de Grenoble, Grenoble, France. ; Osservatorio di Capodimonte, INAF, Napoli, Italy. ; Bear Fight Institute, Winthrop, WA 98862, USA. ; University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. ; European Space Agency (ESA), European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC), Noordwijk, Netherlands. ; Institut d'Astrophysique Spatial, CNRS, Orsay, France. ; Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica "Ennio De Giorgi," Universita del Salento, Italy. ; Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland. ; NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. ; Space Physics Research Laboratory, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA. ; Universita di Perugia, Perugia, Italy. ; Lunar Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA. ; National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan. ; Departement of Physics, Oxford University, Oxford, UK. ; Institute for Planetary Research, Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Berlin, Germany. Free University of Berlin, Institute of Geosciences, Malteserstrasse 74-100, Building Haus A, 12249 Berlin, Germany. ; Universita "Parthenope," Napoli, Italy. ; Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fur Materialien und Energie, Berlin, Germany. ; Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Firenze, Italy. ; Agenzia Spaziale Italiana, Rome, Italy. ; NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA. Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Istituto di Radioastronomia, INAF, Bologna, Italy. ; Institut fur Optische Sensorsysteme, DLR, Berlin, Germany.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25613895" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-09-25
    Description: Observations of cometary nuclei have revealed a very limited amount of surface water ice, which is insufficient to explain the observed water outgassing. This was clearly demonstrated on comet 9P/Tempel 1, where the dust jets (driven by volatiles) were only partially correlated with the exposed ice regions. The observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko have revealed that activity has a diurnal variation in intensity arising from changing insolation conditions. It was previously concluded that water vapour was generated in ice-rich subsurface layers with a transport mechanism linked to solar illumination, but that has not hitherto been observed. Periodic condensations of water vapour very close to, or on, the surface were suggested to explain short-lived outbursts seen near sunrise on comet 9P/Tempel 1. Here we report observations of water ice on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, appearing and disappearing in a cyclic pattern that follows local illumination conditions, providing a source of localized activity. This water cycle appears to be an important process in the evolution of the comet, leading to cyclical modification of the relative abundance of water ice on its surface.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉De Sanctis, M C -- Capaccioni, F -- Ciarniello, M -- Filacchione, G -- Formisano, M -- Mottola, S -- Raponi, A -- Tosi, F -- Bockelee-Morvan, D -- Erard, S -- Leyrat, C -- Schmitt, B -- Ammannito, E -- Arnold, G -- Barucci, M A -- Combi, M -- Capria, M T -- Cerroni, P -- Ip, W-H -- Kuehrt, E -- McCord, T B -- Palomba, E -- Beck, P -- Quirico, E -- VIRTIS Team -- England -- Nature. 2015 Sep 24;525(7570):500-3. doi: 10.1038/nature14869.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali - INAF, via del fosso del cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome, Italy. ; Institute for Planetary Research, DLR, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489 Berlin, Germany. ; LESIA-Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92195 Meudon, France. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes - CNRS Institut de Planetologie et Astrophysique de Grenoble, Batiment D de Physique, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 9, France. ; University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA. ; Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA. ; National Central University, No. 300, Jhongda Road, Jhongli District, Taoyuan City, 32001 Taipei, Taiwan. ; Bear Fight Institute, 22 Fiddler's Road, Box 667, Winthrop, Washington 98862, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26399830" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Extraterrestrial Environment/*chemistry ; Ice/*analysis ; *Meteoroids ; Temperature ; Time Factors ; Volatilization
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-03-19
    Description: The New Horizons spacecraft mapped colors and infrared spectra across the encounter hemispheres of Pluto and Charon. The volatile methane, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen ices that dominate Pluto's surface have complicated spatial distributions resulting from sublimation, condensation, and glacial flow acting over seasonal and geological time scales. Pluto's water ice "bedrock" was also mapped, with isolated outcrops occurring in a variety of settings. Pluto's surface exhibits complex regional color diversity associated with its distinct provinces. Charon's color pattern is simpler, dominated by neutral low latitudes and a reddish northern polar region. Charon's near-infrared spectra reveal highly localized areas with strong ammonia absorption tied to small craters with relatively fresh-appearing impact ejecta.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Grundy, W M -- Binzel, R P -- Buratti, B J -- Cook, J C -- Cruikshank, D P -- Dalle Ore, C M -- Earle, A M -- Ennico, K -- Howett, C J A -- Lunsford, A W -- Olkin, C B -- Parker, A H -- Philippe, S -- Protopapa, S -- Quirico, E -- Reuter, D C -- Schmitt, B -- Singer, K N -- Verbiscer, A J -- Beyer, R A -- Buie, M W -- Cheng, A F -- Jennings, D E -- Linscott, I R -- Parker, J Wm -- Schenk, P M -- Spencer, J R -- Stansberry, J A -- Stern, S A -- Throop, H B -- Tsang, C C C -- Weaver, H A -- Weigle, G E 2nd -- Young, L A -- New Horizons Science Team -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2016 Mar 18;351(6279):aad9189. doi: 10.1126/science.aad9189.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001, USA. w.grundy@lowell.edu. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. ; NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, La Canada Flintridge, CA 91011, USA. ; Southwest Research Institute, Boulder, CO 80302, USA. ; NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. ; NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science Division, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA. Carl Sagan Center, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA. ; NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USA. ; Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, F-38000 Grenoble, France. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA. ; Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA. ; Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USA. ; Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA. ; Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058, USA. ; Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA. ; Planetary Science Institute, Mumbai, India. ; Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 28510, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26989260" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Icarus 105 (1993), S. 254-258 
    ISSN: 0019-1035
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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