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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-08-28
    Description: Doping is a process in which atomic impurities are intentionally added to a host material to modify its properties. It has had a revolutionary impact in altering or introducing electronic, magnetic, luminescent, and catalytic properties for several applications, for example in semiconductors. Here we explore and demonstrate the extension of the concept of substitutional atomic doping to nanometre-scale crystal doping, in which one nanocrystal is used to replace another to form doped self-assembled superlattices. Towards this goal, we show that gold nanocrystals act as substitutional dopants in superlattices of cadmium selenide or lead selenide nanocrystals when the size of the gold nanocrystal is very close to that of the host. The gold nanocrystals occupy random positions in the superlattice and their density is readily and widely controllable, analogous to the case of atomic doping, but here through nanocrystal self-assembly. We also show that the electronic properties of the superlattices are highly tunable and strongly affected by the presence and density of the gold nanocrystal dopants. The conductivity of lead selenide films, for example, can be manipulated over at least six orders of magnitude by the addition of gold nanocrystals and is explained by a percolation model. As this process relies on the self-assembly of uniform nanocrystals, it can be generally applied to assemble a wide variety of nanocrystal-doped structures for electronic, optical, magnetic, and catalytic materials.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Cargnello, Matteo -- Johnston-Peck, Aaron C -- Diroll, Benjamin T -- Wong, Eric -- Datta, Bianca -- Damodhar, Divij -- Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V T -- Herzing, Andrew A -- Kagan, Cherie R -- Murray, Christopher B -- England -- Nature. 2015 Aug 27;524(7566):450-3. doi: 10.1038/nature14872.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Material Measurement Laboratory, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA. ; Department of Physics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA. ; Department of Electrical and Systems Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26310766" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-05-29
    Description: Author Correction: Chemotherapy with radiotherapy influences time-to-development of radiation-induced sarcomas: a multicenter study Author Correction: Chemotherapy with radiotherapy influences time-to-development of radiation-induced sarcomas: a multicenter study, Published online: 29 May 2018; doi:10.1038/s41416-018-0079-9 Author Correction: Chemotherapy with radiotherapy influences time-to-development of radiation-induced sarcomas: a multicenter study
    Print ISSN: 0007-0920
    Electronic ISSN: 1532-1827
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-05-16
    Description: Coral reefs are increasingly degraded by climate-induced bleaching and storm damage. Reef recovery relies on recruitment of young fishes for the replenishment of functionally important taxa. Acoustic cues guide the orientation, habitat selection, and settlement of many fishes, but these processes may be impaired if degradation alters reef soundscapes. Here,...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-06-02
    Description: Purpose: HER2 (or ERBB2 ) aberrations, including both amplification and mutations, have been classified as oncogenic drivers that contribute to 2% to 6% of lung adenocarcinomas. HER2 amplification is also an important mechanism for acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). However, due to limited preclinical studies and clinical trials, currently there is still no available standard of care for lung cancer patients with HER2 aberrations. To fulfill the clinical need for targeting HER2 in patients with non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we performed a comprehensive preclinical study to evaluate the efficacy of a third-generation TKI, osimertinib (AZD9291). Experimental Design: Three genetically modified mouse models (GEMM) mimicking individual HER2 alterations in NSCLC were generated, and osimertinib was tested for its efficacy against these HER2 aberrations in vivo . Results: Osimertinib treatment showed robust efficacy in HER2 wt overexpression and EGFR del19/HER2 models, but not in HER2 exon 20 insertion tumors. Interestingly, we further identified that combined treatment with osimertinib and the BET inhibitor JQ1 significantly increased the response rate in HER2 -mutant NSCLC, whereas JQ1 single treatment did not show efficacy. Conclusions: Overall, our data indicated robust antitumor efficacy of osimertinib against multiple HER2 aberrations in lung cancer, either as a single agent or in combination with JQ1. Our study provides a strong rationale for future clinical trials using osimertinib either alone or in combination with epigenetic drugs to target aberrant HER2 in patients with NSCLC. Clin Cancer Res; 24(11); 2594–604. ©2018 AACR . See related commentary by Cappuzzo and Landi, p. 2470
    Print ISSN: 1078-0432
    Electronic ISSN: 1557-3265
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-07-27
    Description: Germline mutations in STK11 , which encodes the tumor suppressor liver kinase B1 (LKB1), promote Peutz–Jeghers syndrome (PJS), a cancer predisposition syndrome characterized by the development of gastrointestinal (GI) polyps. Here, we report that heterozygous deletion of Stk11 in T cells (LT het mice) is sufficient to promote GI polyposis. Polyps from LT het mice, Stk11 +/– mice, and human PJS patients display hallmarks of chronic inflammation, marked by inflammatory immune-cell infiltration, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) activation, and increased expression of inflammatory factors associated with cancer progression [interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-11, and CXCL2]. Targeting either T cells, IL-6, or STAT3 signaling reduced polyp growth in Stk11 +/ – animals. Our results identify LKB1-mediated inflammation as a tissue-extrinsic regulator of intestinal polyposis in PJS, suggesting possible therapeutic approaches by targeting deregulated inflammation in this disease.
    Keywords: Immunology, Medicine, Diseases
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-10-16
    Description: Sung K. Chiu, Jesslyn Saw, Yizhou Huang, Stefan E. Sonderegger, Nicholas C. Wong, David R. Powell, Dominic Beck, John E. Pimanda, Cedric S. Tremblay, and David J. Curtis Stem cell leukemia ( Scl or Tal1 ) and lymphoblastic leukemia 1 ( Lyl1 ) encode highly related members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors that are co-expressed in the erythroid lineage. Previous studies have suggested that Scl is essential for primitive erythropoiesis. However, analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data of early embryos showed that primitive erythroid cells express both Scl and Lyl1 . Therefore, to determine whether Lyl1 can function in primitive erythropoiesis, we crossed conditional Scl knockout mice with mice expressing a Cre recombinase under the control of the Epo receptor, active in erythroid progenitors. Embryos with 20% expression of Scl from E9.5 survived to adulthood. However, mice with reduced expression of Scl and absence of Lyl1 (double knockout; DKO) died at E10.5 because of progressive loss of erythropoiesis. Gene expression profiling of DKO yolk sacs revealed loss of Gata1 and many of the known target genes of the SCL-GATA1 complex. ChIP-seq analyses in a human erythroleukemia cell line showed that LYL1 exclusively bound a small subset of SCL targets including GATA1. Together, these data show for the first time that Lyl1 can maintain primitive erythropoiesis.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular development and regeneration
    Print ISSN: 0950-1991
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9129
    Topics: Biology
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-11-12
    Description: In multicellular organisms, transcription regulation is one of the central mechanisms modelling lineage differentiation and cell-fate determination. Transcription requires dynamic chromatin configurations between promoters and their corresponding distal regulatory elements. It is believed that their communication occurs within large discrete foci of aggregated RNA polymerases termed transcription factories in three-dimensional nuclear space. However, the dynamic nature of chromatin connectivity has not been characterized at the genome-wide level. Here, through a chromatin interaction analysis with paired-end tagging approach using an antibody that primarily recognizes the pre-initiation complexes of RNA polymerase II, we explore the transcriptional interactomes of three mouse cells of progressive lineage commitment, including pluripotent embryonic stem cells, neural stem cells and neurosphere stem/progenitor cells. Our global chromatin connectivity maps reveal approximately 40,000 long-range interactions, suggest precise enhancer-promoter associations and delineate cell-type-specific chromatin structures. Analysis of the complex regulatory repertoire shows that there are extensive colocalizations among promoters and distal-acting enhancers. Most of the enhancers associate with promoters located beyond their nearest active genes, indicating that the linear juxtaposition is not the only guiding principle driving enhancer target selection. Although promoter-enhancer interactions exhibit high cell-type specificity, promoters involved in interactions are found to be generally common and mostly active among different cells. Chromatin connectivity networks reveal that the pivotal genes of reprogramming functions are transcribed within physical proximity to each other in embryonic stem cells, linking chromatin architecture to coordinated gene expression. Our study sets the stage for the full-scale dissection of spatial and temporal genome structures and their roles in orchestrating development.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954713/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3954713/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Zhang, Yubo -- Wong, Chee-Hong -- Birnbaum, Ramon Y -- Li, Guoliang -- Favaro, Rebecca -- Ngan, Chew Yee -- Lim, Joanne -- Tai, Eunice -- Poh, Huay Mei -- Wong, Eleanor -- Mulawadi, Fabianus Hendriyan -- Sung, Wing-Kin -- Nicolis, Silvia -- Ahituv, Nadav -- Ruan, Yijun -- Wei, Chia-Lin -- 1U54HG004557-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- GGP12152/Telethon/Italy -- GM61390/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK090382/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 HD059862/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 HG004456-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS079231/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01DK090382/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01HD059862/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01HG003521-01/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG005058/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01HG006768/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- R01NS079231/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- U01 GM061390/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- U19 GM061390/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Dec 12;504(7479):306-10. doi: 10.1038/nature12716. Epub 2013 Nov 10.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉1] Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2] [3] Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel (R.Y.B.); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Systems Biology Center, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA (Y.Z.). ; 1] Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2]. ; 1] Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Institute for Human Genetics, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94158, USA [2] [3] Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 8410501, Israel (R.Y.B.); National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Systems Biology Center, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA (Y.Z.). ; 1] The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, and Department of Genetic and Development Biology, University of Connecticut, 400 Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA [2] Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, 138672 Singapore. ; Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Milano-Bicocca, 20126 Milano, Italy. ; Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA. ; Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, 138672 Singapore. ; Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, Institute for Human Genetics, UCSF, San Francisco, California 94158, USA. ; The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, and Department of Genetic and Development Biology, University of Connecticut, 400 Farmington, Connecticut 06030, USA. ; 1] Sequencing Technology Group, Joint Genome Institute, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA [2] Genome Institute of Singapore, 60 Biopolis Street, 138672 Singapore.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24213634" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cell Line ; Cell Lineage ; Chromatin/*genetics/*metabolism ; Embryonic Stem Cells/metabolism ; Enhancer Elements, Genetic/*genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation/*genetics ; In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence ; Mice ; Neural Stem Cells/metabolism ; Promoter Regions, Genetic/*genetics ; RNA Polymerase II/metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic/genetics ; Zebrafish/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-03-07
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.8b00215
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-22
    Description: Microglia have been discovered to undergo repopulation following ablation. However, the functionality of repopulated microglia and the mechanisms regulating microglia repopulation are unknown. We examined microglial homeostasis in the adult mouse retina, a specialized neural compartment containing regular arrays of microglia in discrete synaptic laminae that can be directly visualized. Using in vivo imaging and cell-fate mapping techniques, we discovered that repopulation originated from residual microglia proliferating in the central inner retina that subsequently spread by centrifugal migration to fully recapitulate pre-existing microglial distributions and morphologies. Repopulating cells fully restored microglial functions including constitutive "surveying" process movements, behavioral and physiological responses to retinal injury, and maintenance of synaptic structure and function. Microglial repopulation was regulated by CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling, slowing in CX3CR1 deficiency and accelerating with exogenous CX3CL1 administration. Microglial homeostasis following perturbation can fully recover microglial organization and function under the regulation of chemokine signaling between neurons and microglia.
    Electronic ISSN: 2375-2548
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-11
    Description: Journal of the American Chemical Society DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b11364
    Print ISSN: 0002-7863
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-5126
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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