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  • 1
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    German Medical Science; Düsseldorf, Köln
    In:  Deutscher Kongress für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie; 70. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Unfallchirurgie, 92. Tagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie und 47. Tagung des Berufsverbandes der Fachärzte für Orthopädie; 20061002-20061006; Berlin; DOCE.1.4-1299 /20060928/
    Publication Date: 2007-03-09
    Keywords: ddc: 610
    Language: German
    Type: conferenceObject
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0169-4332
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Nuclear Physics, Section A 106 (1967), S. 117-128 
    ISSN: 0375-9474
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Emiglitate (BAY o 1248) ; sucrose ; starch ; postprandial hyperglycaemia ; glucosidase inhibitor ; blood glucose ; serum insulin ; serum GIP ; breath hydrogen ; adverse effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The absorbable deoxynojirimycin derivative emiglitate (BAY o 1248) is a potent competitive inhibitor of small intestinal α-glucosidases in man. In two similar randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind investigations, the efficacy, duration of action and tolerability of single doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg emiglitate have been assessed in healthy male volunteers after repeated sucrose or maize-starch loads at 08.00, 12.00 and 17.00 h. Even at the lowest dose used, emiglitate almost abolished the glycaemic (−88%) and hormonal responses after the first sucrose meal, simultaneously evoking significant hydrogen evolution (mean peak H2-concentration 〉100 ppm), which was not related to the dose, and which induced unacceptable symptoms of carbohydrate malabsorption, i.e. at the dosages tested, the inhibition of glycaemic and hormonal responses was at the expense of intolerable gastrointestinal adverse effects. Flattening of postprandial responses of blood glucose, serum insulin and gastric inhibitory polypeptide was still apparent after a second sucrose load 4 h later, demonstrating long-lasting inhibition of α-glucosidase activity. After starch, the dose dependency of inhibition emerged more clearly than after sucrose, i.e. the reduction was less pronounced. However, emiglitate led to significant reduction of the glycaemic and hormonal rises after both the first and second starch meals. Symptoms of carbohydrate malabsorption were absent after 10 mg and were negligible with 20 mg or 40 mg emiglitate. Breath hydrogen concentration increased gradually, indicating slight but significant carbohydrate malabsorption after the highest dose of the α-glucosidase inhibitor. The results show that a single morning dose of 20–40 mg emiglitate might be useful in the control of postprandial hyperglycaemia after breakfast and lunch. This dose of the inhibitor was effective after either both 50 g starch or 50 g sucrose as the substrate, but was only tolerable after the starch meal.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1076
    Keywords: Glucose tolerance ; Turner syndrome ; Insulin ; GIP
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There is a well documented increase in the incidence of abnormal glucose tolerance in patients with Turner syndrome. To elucidate the pathophysiology of this phenomenon, we studied the serum concentrations of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) — as probably the most important hormonal factor of the entero-insular axis — in relation to impaired glucose tolerance in this syndrome. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed in 12 Turner patients with simultaneous determination of plasma glucose, insulin and GIP. An impaired glucose tolerance (iGT) was found in four patients with a chronological age between 12.3 and 14.9 years. These patients were compared with found Turner patients of similar age and weight and a normal glucose tolerance (nGT). The highest insulin level occurred 90 min after stimulation in the patients with iGT compared to 30 min in the nGT group. Interestingly, the total areas under the insulin curves were not different. Stimulated plasma GIP concentrations and the areas under the GIP curves wer significantly lower in iGT compared to nGT patients. A disturbed entero-insular axis might contribute to the delayed — rather than diminished — release of insulin in patients with Turner syndrome and impaired glucose tolerance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Diabetologia 28 (1985), S. 565-573 
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Incretin ; entero-insular axis ; insulinotropic factors ; GIP ; hepatic insulin extraction ; pancreatic denervation ; Type 2 diabetes ; experimental diabetes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Experimental and clinical work over the last 6 years has confirmed and broadened, but also challenged, the incretin concept. The nervous component of the entero-insular axis is still poorly defined, especially the peptidergic nerves, of which several contain insulinotropic regulatory peptides. The incretin effect is preserved after complete denervation of the porcine pancreas. Type 2 (non insulin-dependent) diabetic patients have a significantly decreased incretin effect. GIP (gastric inhibitory polypeptide; glucose dependent insulin releasing peptide) remains the strongest incretin factor. Its secretion depends on the absorption of nutrients. However, the correlation between the GIP response and disturbances of the entero-insular axis in some gastrointestinal diseases and, in particular, Type 2 diabetes, is poor. Furthermore, physiological concentrations of exogenous GIP do not produce fully the incretin effect and injection of GIP antibodies does not abolish the incretin effect. This suggests the existence of additional humoral incretin factors. On the other hand, GIP seems to have direct metabolic effects independent of its insulinotropic activity. The incretin effect of oral glucose is smaller if plasma levels of C-peptide rather than insulin are measured. However, decreased hepatic extraction of insulin after glucose ingestion only accounts partially for the incretin effect. GIP is unlikely to be the gut factor which regulates hepatic insulin extraction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: GIP ; gastrin ; insulin ; incretin ; chronic pancreatitis ; test meal ; malassimilation of fat
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary Twenty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis had a significantly greater IR-GIP response to a test meal than 15 controls. This increased response was not related to the degree of steatorrhoea or glucose intolerance. It was most marked in a group of patients with moderately impaired IRI release and medium steatorrhoea. From this is concluded that the IR-GIP response to a test meal is determined by at least two factors: 1. feedback control via insulin secretion, 2. assimilation of fat. In chronic pancreatitis endocrine insufficiency may induce an exaggerated GIP response and severe exocrine insufficiency may prevent fat induced GIP release. Gastrin is not involved in the different GIP response in patients with chronic pancreatitis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: Hyperinsulinaemia ; insulin resistance ; insulin degradation ; haemochromatosis ; cirrhosis ; insulin ; glucagon ; C-peptide ; gastric inhibitory polypeptide
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary This study investigated early alterations of glucose metabolism in idiopathic haemochromatosis. Circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIF) were measured after a 100-g oral glucose load in 10 men with idiopathic haemochromatosis in the non-cirrhotic stage of the disease. All had normal glucose tolerance and normal body weight. Ten matched healthy subjects were studied as controls. Insulin concentrations increased to significantly higher levels in patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis than in the control subjects from 30 to 180min after the glucose load (p〈0.01), while fasting insulin concentrations were not significantly different (p〉 0.05). Concentrations of glucose, glucagon, C-peptide, and GIF were not significantly different at any time (p〉 0.05). Thus, patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis show hyperinsulinaemia and hence insulin resistance without impaired glucose tolerance in the non-cirrhotic stage. Since pancreatic insulin secretion (C-peptide), glucagon secretion, and the entero-insulinar axis (GIP) are not impaired in these non-cirrhotic patients with idiopathic haemochromatosis, iron accumulation in the hepatocytes may be responsible for the impaired insulin effect and may cause impaired hepatic insulin extraction.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 42.65 ; 71.20
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We report for the first time stimulated magneto-Raman scattering inp-type InSb. Two different Raman scattering processes were observed. The first one has a Raman shift of about 2cm−1/kG and is observed at magnetic fields up to 30kG. The other one is observable only at high magnetic fields above 30kG and shows Raman shifts between 1.2cm−1 and 3.0cm−1 with a tuning rate of about 0.2cm−1/kG. The first process can be interpreted either as spin-flip Raman scattering by photo-excited electrons in the conduction band or as Raman scattering by holes in the valence band involving transitions from heavy to light hole states. The other Raman shift observed seems to occur on account of transitions between the heavy hole ladders.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0428
    Keywords: GIP ; gastrin ; insulin ; incretin ; coeliac disease ; duodeno-pancreatectomy ; chronic pancreatitis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The response of serum immunoreactive gastric inhibitory polypeptide (IR-GIP), gastrin (IRG) and insulin (IRI) to a mixed standard meal was measured in 15 controls, 6 patients with coeliac disease, 26 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 6 patients with chronic pancreatitis and partial duodenopancreatectomy (Whipple's procedure). Serum levels of IR-GIP, IRG and IRI were significantly reduced in patients with coeliac disease. The serum glucose increase was significantly smaller only during the first hour after the meal. Since small intestinal GIP- and G-cells are situated mainly in the glands of duodenal and jejunal mucosa their absolute number is not significantly reduced in coeliac disease. It is suggested that the release of IR-GIP and duodenal IRG is influenced by the rate of absorption of nutrients. In patients with chronic pancreatitis the IR-GIP release is significantly greater than in controls, the IRG release normal and the IRI response delayed. After Whipple's procedure the IR-GIP response is increased significantly while the IRG secretion is abolished. This demonstrates that the duodenum is not necessary for GIP release and that pancreatic and jejunal gastrin are without clinical significance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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