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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7690
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Wide angle x-ray scattering and classical molecular-dynamics simulations were employed to study structural and dynamic properties of two low-molecular weight glass-forming liquids, propylene carbonate, and salol. We observe pronounced changes in the liquid structure as a function of temperature in a wide temperature range bracketing the glass transition temperature. The experimental and simulation results compare the x-ray scattering from the liquid slightly and far above the experimental glass transition temperature, Tgexp. The simulations largely reproduce the characteristic behavior of the experimental x-ray intensities, which is interpreted in terms of clusterlike heterogeneities forming in the liquid as Tgexp is approached. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0887-6258
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1440
    Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation ; Acute leukaemia ; Knochenmarktransplantation ; akute Leukämie
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Im Rahmen der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Knochenmarktransplantation München wurden von August 1975 bis Juni 1980 insgesamt 17 Patienten mit rezidivierter, akuter Leukämie mit Knochenmark von HLA-identischen Geschwistern transplantiert. Die antileukämische und immunsuppressive Vorbehandlung bestand aus BCNU, Cytosin-Arabinosid, Cyclophosphamid in hoher Dosierung und Ganzkörperbestrahlung mit etwa 9 Gy Körpermitteldosis an einer60Co-Doppelbestrahlungsanlage. Die Prophylaxe einer Graft-versus-Host Krankheit (GvHK) wurde in allen Fällen mit Methotrexat durchgeführt, bei neun Patienten wurde als zusätzliche GvHK-Prophylaxe das Knochenmark mit Anti-T-Zell-Globulin inkubiert, von dem die Antikörper gegen hämopoetische Stammzellen absorbiert waren. Zwei von fünf auswertbaren Patienten, die unbehandeltes Knochenmark erhalten hatten, entwickelten chronische GvHK, während kein Patient nach ATCG-Inkubation des Knochenmarkes eindeutige GvH-Krankheit bekam. Sechs Patienten leben in Vollremission zwischen einem und 33 Monaten nach Knochenmarktransplantation (KMT). Fünf Patienten starben mit Rezidiven zwischen 3 1/2 und 24 Monaten nach KMT, drei Patienten mit interstitieller Pneumonie innerhalb von 3 Monaten nach KMT und drei Patienten innerhalb von 4 Wochen ohne ausreichende Knochenmarkfunktion. Vier von 13 Patienten, die vor mehr als 6 Monaten transplantiert wurden, überleben zur Zeit 11, 14, 19 und 33 Monate in Vollremission. Unsere Ergebnisse bestätigen, daß selbst in fortgeschrittenen Stadien akuter Leukämie durch KMT noch langfristige Remissionen erreichbar sind.
    Notes: Summary Seventeen patients with relapsed, acute leukemia were grafted with bone marrow from HLA-identical siblings by the ‘Munich Cooperative Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation’ during the period from August 1975 to June 1980. The antileukemic and immunosuppressive conditioning treatment consisted of high doses of Bischlorethyl nitrosourea, Cytosine-Arabinoside and Cyclophosphamide, as well as, total body irradiation of about 9 Gy (midline body dose) from dual60Cobalt sources. Methotrexate was given to all patients for prophylaxis of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Nine patients received marrow that was treated with anti-T-cell globulin (ATCG) “in vitro”. — Crossreacting antibodies against hemopoietic stem cells were removed by absorption. Two of 5 evaluable patients given untreated marrow developed chronic GvHD, while patients given ATCG-treated marrow did not show unequivocal symptoms of GvHD. Six patients are in complete remission one to 33 months following bone marrow transplantation (b.m.t.) Five patients died with relapses of leukemia between 3 1/2 and 24 months following b.m.t., 3 patients died with interstitial pneumonia within 3 months of b.m.t. and 3 patients died with insufficient graft function within 4 weeks of b.m.t. Four of thirteen patients that were grafted more than 6 months ago are presently alive and in continuous complete remission at 11, 14, 29 and 33 months following b.m.t. Our results confirm that longterm remissions can be obtained with b.m.t. in patients with acute leukemia in advanced stage.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Electrical resistance pulse sizing ; Electronic cell volume ; Platelets ; Size distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: The effects of low levels of methacrylic acid (MAA) (less than 4 mol %) and a crosslinker (less than 0.3 mol %) on the equilibrium swelling and water content of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) hydrogels were investigated. Numerous pHEMA disks, some of which were doped with small amounts of MAA, were placed in swelling baths simulating possible urological as well as physiological conditions. Several interesting facts are reported, such as, in dilute urea (0.15M) or in alkali solution, gels containing 2% MAA are capable of swelling to 3600% their size in mild acid, saline, or distilled water, with associated water contents that range as high as 98%. Also, gels containing small amounts of MAA and finite crosslinker content can be made that are soluble in mild urea or alkali solution. The significance of this study is that gels or gel surfaces can be fabricated that are highly responsive to their environment. In addition, since the level of MAA that cause this shrink-swell behavior are well within the impurity levels of MAA found in unpurified commercial HEMA, it is conceivable that this shrink-swell behavior may have occurred in early studies of implanted pHEMA gels, thus confusing the subsequent evaluation of its performance as a biomaterial.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1741-0444
    Keywords: Fabrication ; Kink resistant ; Polyurethane ; Tubes
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Work reported here shows that, contrary to reports in the literature, hydrogels made from pure poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), pHEMA, at crosslinker content greater than 0.15 mol % do not swell above the usual equilibrium values of 39-42% water content in aqueous urea solution. However, hydrogels containing small (impurity) amounts of methacrylic acid (MAA) do swell dramatically (approximately 90%) in dilute urea solution, but not directly due to the urea. The urea decomposes to produce ammonium ions, thus raising the pH of the solution. Ionization of MAA occurs above pH 6, causing electrostatic interactions within the gel. The grossly swollen state of these gels represents an internal equilibrium among forces due to rubber elasticity, polymer - polymer/solvent affinity, and electrostatic interactions.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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