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    Abstract: Presenting recent discoveries on ethnomedicinal plants around the world, this book focuses on evaluating the progress to date as well as the future potential of drug development in ethnomedicine. Eight reviews examine therapeutic applications including the spasmolitic effects of various plants, the anti-inflammatory activity of plants from Brazil and Tunisia, common fertility treatments in Trinidad and Tobago, traditional medicines from Cameroon and their interaction with estrogen receptors, the medicinal plants used in Spain to treat digestion problems, immune-modulators and stimulators from plants, and antimicrobial herbs from India.
    Type of Publication: Book chapter
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    Keywords: CANCER ; GROWTH ; SURVIVAL ; tumor ; COMBINATION ; Germany ; human ; LUNG ; THERAPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; DISEASE ; DRUG ; TUMORS ; LINES ; PATIENT ; colon ; CELL-LINES ; treatment ; TRIAL ; EXPERIENCE ; NUMBER ; metastases ; CELL-LINE ; chemotherapy ; leukemia ; LINE ; MELANOMA ; DERIVATIVES ; COLON-CANCER ; CANCER-PATIENTS ; SAFETY ; CANCER PATIENTS ; RANDOMIZED TRIAL ; cell lines ; DACARBAZINE ; RANDOMIZED-TRIAL ; FOTEMUSTINE ; INTERLEUKIN-2 ; CYTOTOXICITY ; STANDARD ; ONCOLOGY ; colon cancer ; TUMOR-GROWTH ; HUMAN CANCER ; IV ; CHINESE ; uveal melanoma ; MALARIA ; antimalarial ; artemisinin ; artesunate ; DIHYDROARTEMISININ ; HOLOTRANSFERRIN ; QINGHAOSU ; TOLERABILITY ; uvea
    Abstract: Artesunate (ART) is a derivative of artemisinin, the active principle of the Chinese herb Artemisia annua L. Artesunate is approved for the treatment of multidrug-resistant malaria and has an excellent safety profile. It has been shown that Artesunate, apart from its anti-malarial activity, has cytotoxic effects on a number of human cancer cell lines, including leukemia, colon cancer and melanoma. We report on the first long-term treatment of two cancer patients with ART in combination with standard chemotherapy. These patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were treated on a compassionate-use basis, after standard chemotherapy alone was ineffective in stopping tumor growth. The therapy-regimen was well tolerated with no additional side effects other than those caused by standard chemotherapy alone. One patient experienced a temporary response after the addition of ART to Fotemustine while the disease was progressing under therapy with Fotemustine alone. The second patient first experienced a stabilization of the disease after the addition of ART to Dacarbazine, followed by objective regressions of splenic and lung metastases. This patient is still alive 47 months after first diagnosis of stage IV uveal melanoma, a situation with a median survival of 2-5 months. Despite the small number of treated patients, ART might be a promising adjuvant drug for the treatment of melanoma and possibly other tumors in combination with standard chemotherapy. Its good tolerability and lack of serious side effects will facilitate prospective randomized trials in the near future
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16273263
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    Keywords: PATIENT ; VARIANTS ; MUTATIONS ; molecular ; VARIANT ; SWITZERLAND
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16103639
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    Keywords: OPTIMIZATION ; APOPTOSIS ; CELLS ; proliferation ; INHIBITION ; VOLUME ; INDUCTION ; FLOW ; PARAMETERS ; CAPACITY ; PH ; FLAVONOIDS ; RECOVERY ; SEPARATION ; adsorption ; PEOPLE ; DESORPTION ; ANTHOCYANINS ; luteolin ; macroporous resins ; pigeonpea ; POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS
    Abstract: In the present study, the performance and separation characteristics of eight macroporous resins for the separation of luteolin (LU) from pigeonpea leaves extracts have been evaluated. The adsorption and desorption properties of LU on macroporous resins including AB-8, NKA-9, NKA-2, D3520, D101, H 1020, H103 and AL-2 have been compared. AL-2 resin offers the best adsorption and desorption capacity for LU than other resins based on the research results, and its adsorption data at 25 degrees C fit best to the Freundlich isotherm. Dynamic adsorption and desorption experiments have been carried out with the column packed by AL-2 resin to optimize the separation process of LU from pigeonpea leaves extracts. The optimum parameters for adsorption were sample solution LU concentration 65.5 mu g/ml, pH 5, processing volume 3 BV, flow rate 1.5 BV/h, temperature 25 degrees C; for desorption were elution solvent ethanol-water (50:50, v/v) 2 BV and followed by ethanol-water (60:40, v/v) 2 BV, and flow rate I BV/h. After treated with AL-2 resin, the LU content in the product was increased 19.8-fold from 0.129% to 2.55%, with a recovery yield of 78.54%. The results showed that AL-2 resin revealed a good ability to separate LU. Therefore, we conclude that results in this study may provide scientific references for the large-scale LU production from pigeonpea or other plants extracts. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17126843
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    Keywords: CANCER ; CELLS ; tumor ; TUMOR-CELLS ; CELL ; Germany ; THERAPY ; DIAGNOSIS ; HISTORY ; RISK ; DRUG ; cell line ; LINES ; RISK-FACTORS ; tumour ; CELL-LINES ; treatment ; risk factors ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; cancer risk ; DERIVATIVES ; PRODUCT ; STRATEGIES ; FUTURE ; cell lines ; TUMOR CELLS ; CYTOTOXICITY ; ORIGIN ; traditional Chinese medicine ; molecular ; FEATURES ; review ; PRODUCTS ; DETERMINANTS ; THERAPIES ; TUMOR-CELL ; pharmacogenomics ; DRUGS ; COMPOUND ; cancer research ; CANCER-TREATMENT ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; TOXICOLOGY ; MEDICINE ; DIVISION ; ORIGINS ; MOLECULAR DETERMINANTS ; German ; MEDICINAL-PLANTS ; plant
    Abstract: In the present review, we give a short introduction into the history, philosophy and traditional diagnosis and therapy of Kampo, which has its origins in traditional Chinese medicine. The main focus is on pharmacogenomics of natural products derived from Kampo medicinal plants, with special emphasis on cancer treatment. One of these natural products with profound cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines is shikonin from the medicinal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon. This compound has been selected to demonstrate how molecular determinants of response of tumor cells to Kampo-derived natural products can be investigated by microarray-based approaches. Synthetic or semi-synthetic derivatives of natural products from Kampo medicine may lead to novel drugs with improved features for cancer treatment. Kampo-derived natural products represent a valuable reservoir for individual tumour treatment strategies in the future.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17804870
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    Keywords: CELLS ; AGENTS ; CELL ; Germany ; MICROSCOPY ; THERAPY ; DEATH ; TIME ; MECHANISM ; mechanisms ; treatment ; DAMAGE ; SURFACE ; MORPHOLOGY ; BODY ; AGENT ; BODIES ; CHEMISTRY ; HEIGHT ; LEVEL ; SIZE ; technique ; pharmacology ; ANTIBACTERIAL ; Atomic force microscopy ; SHAPE ; antibacterial activity ; CYTOPLASM ; essential oil ; GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA ; labiatae ; Propionibacterium acnes ; rosemary ; rosmarinus officinalis L ; VULGARIS
    Abstract: In the present study, the antibacterial activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. Labiatae) essential oil against Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) was observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) value of rosemary essential oil against Racnes was 0.56 mg/mL. Significant changes in morphology and size of P. acnes were observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in response to essential oil treatment. The essential oil first attached to the surface of A acnes at low concentration, the width and height of the bacterial body became larger, whereas the length did not change considerably. With increasing concentration of the essential oil, the bacterial bodies were severely damaged. The length, width and height were all reduced, when the concentration was increased up to 64 x MIC, the length, width and height were reduced by 42.56%, 92.00% and 41.58%, respectively. Furthermore, treated bacteria lost their native shape, the cell wall desquamated, and the cytoplasm leaked out of the bacterial body, finally leading to bacterial death. With the increasing time at MIC, the bacteria length was reduced at 8 h, the width and height gradually became smaller, the shape of the cell became distorted, and finally led to cell wall damage and bacterial death at 8 h. In conclusion, the AFM investigation of morphology and size of A acnes treated with rosemary essential oil represents a powerful technique, which can generally be applied to reveal the biological changing mechanisms of bacteria induced by antibacterial agents at the nanometer level
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17893831
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    Keywords: COMBINATION ; ESCHERICHIA-COLI ; CHEMISTRY ; RE ; TESTS ; STRAINS ; pharmacology ; ANTIBACTERIAL ; LISTERIA-MONOCYTOGENES ; MIXTURES ; in combination ; MEDICINAL-PLANTS ; essential oil ; GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA ; rosemary ; rosmarinus officinalis L ; antimicrobial ; CINNAMON ; clove
    Abstract: In the present study, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from clove (Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. et Perry) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) was tested alone and in combination. The compositions of the oils were analysed by GC/MS. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against three Gram-positive bacteria, three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungi were determined for the essential oils and their mixtures. Furthermore, time-kill dynamic processes of clove and rosemary essential oils against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were tested. Both essential oils possessed significant antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested. The MICs of clove oil ranged from 0.062% to 0.500% (v/v), while the MICs of rosemary oil ranged from 0.125% to 1.000% (v/v). The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two essential oils indicated their additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects against individual microorganism tests. The time-kill curves of clove and rosemary essential oils towards three strains showed clearly bactericidal and fungicidal processes of 1/2 x MIC, MIC, MBC and 2 x MIC. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17562569
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    Keywords: RECEPTOR ; CANCER ; EXPRESSION ; GROWTH ; GROWTH-FACTOR ; INHIBITOR ; tumor ; carcinoma ; CELL ; FACTOR RECEPTOR ; Germany ; KINASE ; THERAPY ; TYROSINE KINASE ; DIAGNOSIS ; HYBRIDIZATION ; DRUG ; cell line ; TUMORS ; validation ; LINES ; DNA ; prognosis ; DOMAIN ; CELL-LINES ; GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTOR ; treatment ; TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITOR ; chromosome ; COMPARATIVE GENOMIC HYBRIDIZATION ; COPY NUMBER ; NUMBER ; CELL-LINE ; LINE ; DATABASE ; PROGNOSTIC-FACTORS ; CANCER-CELLS ; CRYSTAL-STRUCTURE ; PROGNOSTIC-SIGNIFICANCE ; squamous cell carcinoma ; IMBALANCES ; cell lines ; CLUSTER ; NECK-CANCER ; INHIBITORS ; CELL CARCINOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; PROGRAM ; RE ; EGFR ; analysis ; TUMOR-CELL ; PROFILES ; hierarchical cluster analysis ; technique ; correlation ; DRUGS ; CANDIDATE ; COMPOUND ; CANCERS ; genomic ; SQUAMOUS-CELL ; epidermal growth factor receptor ; GROWTH-FACTOR-RECEPTOR ; PROGNOSTIC RELEVANCE ; CEM LEUKEMIA-CELLS ; modeling ; MOLECULAR-MODES ; oral squamous cell carcinoma ; docking studies ; LINDERA-MEGAPHYLLA ; molecular-targeted therapy ; RESISTANT TUMOR-CELLS
    Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma ranks among the top ten most common cancers worldwide. Despite the success in diagnosis and therapy during the past 30 years, oral squamous cell carcinoma still belongs to the tumor types with a very unfavorable prognosis. In an effort to identify genomic alterations with prognostic relevance, we applied the comparative genomic hybridization technique on oral squamous cell carcinoma. The tumors exhibited from five up to 47 DNA copy number alterations, indicating a considerable degree of genomic imbalance. Out of 35 tumors, 19 showed a gain of chromosome band 7p12. Genomic imbalances were investigated by hierarchical cluster analysis and clustered image mapping to investigate whether genomic profiles correlate with clinical data. Results of the present investigation show that profiling of genomic imbalances in general, and especially of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on 7p12, may be suitable as prognostic factors. In order to identify small-molecule inhibitors for EGFR, we established a database of 531 natural compounds derived from medicinal plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. Candidate compounds were identified by correlation analysis using the Kendall tau-test of IC50 values of tumor cell lines and microarray-based EGFR mRNA expression. Further validation was performed by molecular docking studies using the AutoDock program with the crystal structure of EGFR tyrosine kinase domain as docking template. We estimate these results will be a further step toward the ultimate goal of individualized, patient-adapted tumor treatment based on tumor molecular profiling
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17338652
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