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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-1464
    Keywords: barberry ; Berberis thunbergii ; clonal spread ; exotic species ; plant invasions ; population dynamics ; shrubs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Japanese barberry, Berberis thunbergii DC., has become a prominent exotic species in deciduous forests throughout the eastern and midwestern US. Populations range from small plants occurring at low densities to dense, impenetrable thickets of plants with up to 40 stems/individual. A study was undertaken at Morristown National Historical Park in New Jersey to document plant densities, plant size, recruitment through vegetative processes of new shoot initiation and clonal spread and recruitment from seedling establishment, and mortality of stems and plants. Nearly 2000 shoots on 370 plants were individually marked and followed for two growing seasons, and over 1000 seedlings were also individually marked and followed. Populations vary much more in total shoots/area than they do in plant individuals/area, or in mean plant size (shoots/plant), as even the sparse populations have a few large individuals. Shoot mortality is less than new shoot initiation, but most plants do not change in size or change by small numbers of stems. However, the number of new shoots per plant increases as plant size increases. Once plants have three stems, they suffer little or no mortality. Seedling establishment is proportional to the density of shoots, so that as plants grow in size, local recruitment from seed increases. Large numbers of seedlings, and a survival rate of 10%, combine to make seedling recruitment a major component of population increase. The combination of multiple forms of vegetative and seed-based population growth, and the very low rates of plant mortality due to the multi-stemmed growth form explains the ability of this invasive species to rapidly produce dense, persistent populations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Microbial biomass ; Microarthropods ; Nematodes ; Rhizosphere ; Disturbance ; Microcosm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary We investigated the effects of pitch pine seedling roots on extractable N, microbial growth rate, biomass C and N, and nematodes and microarthropods in microcosms with either organic (41% C, 1.14% N) or mineral (0.05% C, 0.01% N) horizon soils of a spondosol. Root quantity was manipulated by varying plant density (0, 1, 2, or 4 seedlings) and rhizosphere soil was separated from non-rhizosphere soil by a 1.2 μm mesh fabric. In the rhizosphere of organic soil horizons, moisture, microbial growth rate, biomass C and N, and extractable N declined as root density was increased, but there was little effect on nematodes or microarthropods. High levels of extractable N remained after 5 months, suggesting that N mineralization was stimulated during the incubation. In the rhizosphere of mineral soil horizons, microbial growth rate, and nematode and microarthropod abundances increased at higher root density, and in the absence of roots faunal abundance approached zero. Faunal activity was concentrated in the rhizosphere compared to non-rhizosphere soil. In organic soil horizons, roots may limit microbial activity by reducing soil moisture and/or N availability. However, in mineral soil horizons, where nutrient levels are very low, root inputs can stimulate microbial growth and faunal abundance by providing important substrates for microbial growth. Our results demonstrate a rhizosphere effect for soil fauna in the mineral soil, and thus extends the rhizosphere concept to components of the soil community other than microbes for forest ecosystems. Although our results need to be verified by field manipulations, we suggest that the effects of pine roots on nutrient cycling processes in coniferous forests can vary with soil nutrient content and, therefore, position in the soil profile.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key words Dead roots ; Fluorescein diacetate-active hyphae ; Field mesocosms ; Live roots ; Mor humus ; Mycorrhizae ; New Jersey Pinelands ; Spodosolic forest soils
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of live and dead roots on soil fungi were investigated experimentally in a spodosolic soil of the New Jersey Pinelands. Field mesocosm plots were constructed to have a layer of either C- and N-rich organic soil or a vermiculite substitute overlying a layer of sandy mineral soil with a very low organic content. The plots were also supplied with live pitch pine and blueberry roots or dead pitch pine roots in varying quantities based on naturally occurring densities (half, same, and double the ambient quantities). All plots were sampled 1 year after construction (June 1991), and three more times in two subsequent years (November 1991, June 1992, June 1993). In the presence of live roots, fluorescein diacetate-determined (FDA-active) fungal hyphae, total fungal hyphae, and soil moisture decreased significantly in the organic material, while no change was associated with the dead roots. The FDA-active fungal length in the live-root plots ranged from 40 to 165 m g–1 soil, and from 55 to 335 m g–1 soil in the dead-root plots. While the total fungal length in live-root plots remained constant over time (∼3000 m g–1 soil), the total fungal length in the dead-root plots increased from an initial value of 3000 to 〉4000 m g–1 soil at the conclusion of the study. Fungal lengths in mineral soil were higher under organic material than under the vermiculite substitute. Soil moisture was higher in the presence of live roots in mineral soils, but this did not increase the fungal abundance. Inputs of dead roots did not alter the fungal abundance. Overall, we demonstrated that live and dead roots had different effects on fungal abundance in soils with contrasting qualities, and in a spodosolic forest soil, roots could have ecosystem effects very different from those in agricultural soils.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Dead roots ; Fluorescein diacetate-active hyphae ; Field mesocosms ; Live roots ; Mor humus ; Mycorrhizae ; New Jersey Pinelands ; Spodosolic forest soils
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The effects of live and dead roots on soil fungi were investigated experimentally in a spodosolic soil of the New Jersey Pinelands. Field mesocosm plots were constructed to have a layer of either C- and N-rich organic soil or a vermiculite substitute overlying a layer of sandy mineral soil with a very low organic content. The plots were also supplied with live pitch pine and blueberry roots or dead pitch pine roots in varying quantities based on anturally occurring densities (half, same, and double the ambient quantities). All plots were sampled 1 year after construction (June 1991), and three more times in two subsequent years (November 1991, June 1992, June 1993). In the presence of live roots, fluorescein diacetate-determined (FDA-active) fungal hyphae, total fungal hyphae, and soil moisture decreased significantly in the organic material, while no change was associated with the dead roots. The FDA-active fungal length in the live-root plots ranged from 40 to 165 mg-1 soil, and from 55 to 335 mg-1 soil in the dead-root plots. While the total fungal length in live-root plots remained constant over time (∼3000 mg-1 soil), the total fungal length in the dead-root plots increased from an initial value of 3000 to 〉4000 mg-1 soil at the conclusion of the study. Fungal lengths in mineral soil were higher under organic material than under the vermiculite substitute. Soil moisture was higher in the presence of live roots in mineral soils, but this did not increase the fungal abundance. Inputs of dead roots did not alter the fungal abundance. Overall, we demonstrated that live and dead roots had different effects on fungal abundance in soils with contrasting qualities, and in a spodosolic forest soil, roots could have ecosystem effects very different from those in agricultural soils.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: We assessed the vertical growth and mycorrhizal infection of woody plant roots on a closed landfill, using tree and shrub clusters that had been previously installed in patches of increasing size to establish protocols for woodland restoration. The density of the fine roots of shrubs, which had poor-to-moderate mycorrhizal infection, decreased strongly with increasing depth. Oak (Quercus) seedlings planted within and outside patches were assessed for ectomycorrhizal infection. Oak root systems were mycorrhizal, but root-tip proliferation was improved and ectomycorrhizal composition was influenced by woody debris in the mineral soil. Most surviving oaks were found within patches, but all seedlings showed poor growth: most taproots were deflected horizontally above the boundary between surface soil and subsoil layers (〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:10612971:REC6310:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉−15 cm). Abrupt decreases in pH between surface and subsurface horizons (6.9 versus 5.3), together with poor drainage and aeration of the latter soil, were probably responsible for poor root growth. Root growth of greenhouse-grown pine and maple seedlings was similarly restricted in pots packed with topsoil over subsoil material. Our results suggest that many current specifications for the cover of closed landfills will not permit restoration of native woody plant communities because of physical limitations to root growth and infectivity. The structure of the engineered soil must address basic plant growth requirements as well as traditional concerns of drainage and barrier protection.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Boston, MA, USA : Blackwell Science Inc
    Restoration ecology 8 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The search for a universal statement of goals for ecological restoration continues to generate discussion and controversy. I discuss the diverse roots of restoration ecology, and show how the complex lineages within the field have led to diverse, and divergent, sets of goals. I then review the three major themes that currently are used to develop statements of goals: restoration of species, restoration of whole ecosystems or landscapes, and the restoration of ecosystem services, and point out both the advantages and the limitations and problems associated with each category. Finally, I suggest that restoration ecology would be better served by recognizing that the diversity of conditions requiring restoration demands much flexibility in goal setting, and that restorationists should seek to develop guidelines for defining the sets of conditions under which different kinds of goals are appropriate. I further suggest that goals would be more easily and more appropriately set if restorationists would set forth at the outset the true scope and limitations of what is possible in a given project.Key words: goal-setting, wetlands, conservation biology, ecosystem management, ecosystem services, landscape management.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Restoration ecology 5 (1997), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1526-100X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The ecosystem perspective provides a framework within which most other aspects of the ecology of restoration can be incorporated. By considering the ecosystem functions of a restoration project, the restorationist is forced to consider the placement of the project in the landscape—its boundaries, its connections or lack thereof to adjoining ecosystems, and its receipts and losses of materials and energy from its physical surroundings. These characteristics may set limits on the kind(s) of biotic communities that can be created on the site. The ecosystem perspective also gives restorationists conceptual tools for structuring and evaluating restorations. These include the mass balance approach to nutrient, pollutant, and energy budgets; subsidy/stress effects of inputs; food web architecture; feedback among ecosystem components; efficiency of nutrient transfers, primary productivity and decomposition as system-determining rates; and disturbance regimes. However, there are many uncertainties concerning these concepts, their relation to each other, and their relationships to population- and community-level phenomena. The nature of restoration projects provides a unique opportunity for research on these problems; the large spatial scale of restorations and the freedom to manipulate species, soil, water, and even the landscape could allow ecosystem-level experiments to be conducted that could not be performed otherwise.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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