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  • 1
    Keywords: EXPRESSION ; GENE ; PROTEIN ; DIFFERENTIATION ; METASTASIS ; DISSEMINATED TUMOR-CELLS ; micrometastasis ; MAMMARY-GLAND ; SELF-RENEWAL ; CTBP
    Abstract: Regulatory pathways that drive early hematogenous dissemination of tumor cells are insufficiently defined. Here, we used the presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in the bone marrow to define patients with early disseminated breast cancer and identified low retinoic acid-induced 2 (RAI2) expression to be significantly associated with DTC status. Low RAI2 expression was also shown to be an independent poor prognostic factor in 10 different cancer datasets. Depletion of RAI2 protein in luminal breast cancer cell lines resulted in dedifferentiation marked by downregulation of ERalpha, FOXA1, and GATA3, together with increased invasiveness and activation of AKT signaling. Functional analysis of the previously uncharacterized RAI2 protein revealed molecular interaction with CtBP transcriptional regulators and an overlapping function in controlling the expression of a number of key target genes involved in breast cancer. These results suggest that RAI2 is a new metastasis-associated protein that sustains differentiation of luminal breast epithelial cells. SIGNIFICANCE: We identified downregulation of RAI2 as a novel metastasis-associated genetic alteration especially associated with early occurring bone metastasis in ERalpha-positive breast tumors. We specified the role of the RAI2 protein to function as a transcriptional regulator that controls the expression of several key regulators of breast epithelial integrity and cancer. Cancer Discov; 5(5); 506-19. (c)2015 AACR. See related commentary by Esposito and Kang, p. 466 This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 453.
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 25716347
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary The purpose of this study was to determine changes in flexural properties of resin cement under simulated resin-bonded fixed partial denture (RBFPD) clinical conditions using aqueous ageing and cyclic loading. Panavia F flexural modulus and strength were measured by static loading to failure after 48-h and 60-day aqueous ageing at 37 °C with and without simulated cyclic occlusal loading. Panavia F sorption and solubility were also measured. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology of the fractured surfaces. A two-factor anova (P ≤ 0·05) indicated that cyclic loading produced a significant increase in the flexural modulus with no significant effect on the flexural strength. Conversely, aqueous ageing time produced a significant decrease in flexural strength with no effect on the flexural modulus. The SEM fracture analysis indicated that resin matrix fracture occurred in static-aqueous specimens; while in the aqueous-cycled specimens, resin matrix fracture occurred in addition to an increasing proportion of filler/resin interface fracture. Collectively, these outcomes suggest that initial degradation under simulated resin cement clinical function may be related to breakdown of the filler/resin interface bond, which could contribute to in vivo RBFPD resin cement cohesive failure.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1532-849X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Purpose The most frequent cause of clinical failure of resin-bonded fixed partial dentures is a debonding at the metal-cement interface. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the tensile bond strengths of 3 different alloy-surface treatments when cemented to human enamel with a resin cement.Materials and Methods Cylinders of a nickel-chromium-beryllium (Ni-Cr-Be) and a gold-palladium (Au-Pd) alloy were fabricated and assigned to different surface treatment groups as follows: Group 1: Ni-Cr-Be, chemically etched; Group 2: Au-Pd, airborne particle–abraded and tin-plated; and Group 3: Au-Pd, airborne particle–abraded and treated with the Alloy Primer (Kuraray Co, LTD, Osaka, Japan). The cylinders were bonded to the enamel surfaces of extracted, human third molars and stored in normal saline at 37°C for 48 hours. The tensile bond strength of 21 specimens from each group was measured on a Universal Testing Machine (Instron, Canton, MA). Three failed specimens of each group were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy.Results Statistically significant differences (p 〈 .05) were found between all 3 treatment groups. The mean tensile bond strengths (± the standard error of mean) recorded as follows: Group 1: 10.6 MPa (±1.3), Group 2: 0.9 MPa (±0.2), and Group 3: 13.4 MPa (±1.0). Specimens from groups 1 and 3 revealed a trend towards mixture of cohesive, within the resin cement, and adhesive failures at the metal-cement interface. Group 2 specimens exhibited primarily adhesive failures at the metal-cement interface.Conclusion The tensile bond strength of Au-Pd alloy specimens was significantly increased with the Alloy Primer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1532-849X
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Purpose The study investigated the effects of palatal depth and a resin anchoring system on the adaptation of denture base resin to the master cast after compression molding and heat polymerization.Materials and Methods Forty-eight virtually identical polymethyl methacrylate dentures were fabricated on master casts with either a deep or shallow palatal vault. One half of the master casts of each palate type were altered by the addition of anchoring holes along the posterior land area, as well as perpendicularly in the midsaggital area. Anchoring holes were made with a #8 round bur to a depth of 5 mm. Twenty-four hours after polymerization, the bases on their casts were sectioned at the posterior border and evaluated for degree of adaptation using a traveling microscope. Maladaptation at the interface of the denture base and master cast was measured at predetermined mediolateral locations. A split-plot analysis of variance (α= 0.05) was performed followed by a post-hoc Dunn Multiple Comparison Test.Results In general, depth of the palatal vault did not significantly influence denture palatal discrepancy (p= .0780), but the use of the anchoring system significantly reduced mean gap distances (p= .000). At lateral and midpalate locations, gap distances between the denture bases and their casts were reduced from approximately 0.3 mm to approximately 0.1 mm when the anchoring system was used.Conclusion Mean gap distances for steep palate dentures were significantly less than shallow palate dentures at vestibule and lateral palate locations, and anchoring holes placed in an edentulous master cast along the posterior land area and at the midline significantly improved the adaptation of denture bases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Hydroxyapatite ; Calcification ; Phases ; Growth ; Microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé La croissance cristalline de l'hydroxyleapatite à 25° et à pH constant de 7.4 a été étudiée à l'aide du microscope électronique à balayage. La technique reproductible de croissance par ensemencement à partir de solutions stables sursaturées est utilisée efficacement pour produire des échantillons de minéral à divers stades distincts de croissance. Des changements de phase sont observés avec le progrès de la croissance; ils correspondent dans le temps avec les résultats cinétiques obtenus antérieurement. Un essai de rationalisation est tenté à la lumière des mécanismes proposés pour la formation d'hydroxyleapatite dans des conditionsin vivo.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Das Kristallwachstum von Hydroxyapatit bei 25° und einem konstanten pH von 7,4 wurde mit Hilfe eines Raster-Elektronenmikroskopes studiert. Die reproduzierbare Technik des Keimwachstums aus stabilen übersättigten Lösungen wurde mit Erfolg verwendet, um Mineralproben in verschiedenen bestimmten Stadien des Wachstums zu erhalten. Phasenveränderungen wurden beim fortschreitenden Wachstum beobachtet, und diese stimmten zeitlich gut überein mit kinetischen Resultaten, über welche früher berichtet wurde. Es wurde versucht, diese Beobachtungen zu erklären in Anbetracht von Mechanismen, welche für die Bildung von Hydroxyapatit unterin vivo-Bedingungen vorgeschlagen wurden.
    Notes: Abstract The crystal growth of hydroxyapatite at 25° and at a constant pH of 7.4 has been studied with the aid of a scanning electron microscope. The reproducible technique of seeded growth from stable supersaturated solutions was used effectively to produce samples of the mineral at various distinct stages of growth. Phase changes were observed as the growth proceeded and these corresponded favorably in time with kinetic results reported earlier. An attempt was made to rationalize the observations in light of mechanisms proposed for the formation of hydroxyapatite under conditions foundin vivo.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Homopolymers of 2-isocyanatoethyl methacrylate, ethyl α-cyanoacrylate, and ethyl α-is-ocyanatoacrylate were prepared in tetrahydrofuran at 22 to 25°C using tri-n-butylborane oxide as a free radical initiator. Additionally, ethyl α-isocyanatoacrylate was homopolymerized using 2,2′-azobis(2-methylbutyronitrile) as the initiator. Homopolymers were characterized by photoacoustic FT-IR, DSC, and elemental analysis. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0887-6266
    Keywords: density change determination for polymerizations with minimal volume change ; spiro-orthocarbonates, expansion polymerization density change determination for ; Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Materials that polymerize without substantial volume contraction have numerous valuable applications in dentistry and other fields. Two new symmetrical aliphatic spiro-orthocar-bonates, formulated from cis- and trans-2-hydroxymethyl-cyclohexanol to give 2,3,8,9-di(tetramethylene)-1,5,7,11-tetraoxaspiro [5,5] undecanes, showed, by density determinations in dilute solution, that expansion occurs with polymerization. The cis / cis-spiroorthocarbonate racemic mixture showed a 3.9% expansion upon polymerization, and the trans/trans racemic mixture showed a 3.5% expansion. The densities were determined by pycnometry, with a precision reliable to at least four figures. This method is thus recommended for cases of soluble monomer/polymer pairs for which the density difference will be small and where the partial specific volumes are independent of concentration, thereby avoiding the complexities of variable physical states of monomer and/or polymer. © 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Current in vitro biocompatibility methods do not evaluate the degradation of biomaterials after contact with enzymes that might be present in the oral or systemic environment. In this study, two methods of in vitro enzyme degradation and a method for the separation of the degradative products by high performance thinlayer chromatography (HPTLC) are reported. In the first method two dental adhesives, Scotchbond and Scotchbond II, and two dental composites, Helimolar and P-50, were evaluated. These materials were incubated with four different enzymatic preparations for periods of up to 72 h. The enzymes were lipase, esterase, and liver enzyme extracts from both mouse and rat. Chloroform soluble products extracted from the aqueous phase were examined by HPTLC for decomposition products resulting from enzyme activity. The second method was similar, but analyzed the aqueous fraction directly without chloroform extraction. In this method five dental restorative materials, P-50, P-30, Scotochbond II, Silux, and Silux Plus, were incubated with a nonspecific porcine liver esterase. In addition to the polymerized biomaterials. Monomers containing methacrylic acid units were also hydrolyzed with esterase and analyzed by ion chromatography to establish the sensitivity of the enzyme simulator. Each biomaterial presented thin-layer zones not present before enzymatic action. These experiments provide support that aqueous enzymatic action may facilitate the hydrolytic weakening of polymeric biomaterials. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: When transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to evaluate resin-dentin interface specimens for completeness of hybridization, the epoxy resin embedding medium that normally facilitates ultrathin sectioning may produce a secondary or artifactual hybrid layer. This secondary hybrid layer, composed of epoxy resin rather than adhesive resin, may fill the pores that remain as evidence of incomplete resin infiltration, obscuring the fact that they ever existed. In this study, resin-dentin interfaces produced by two dentin adhesive systems, Optibond (OPTI, Kerr) and Scotch-bond Multi-Purpose (SBMP, 3M), were comparatively investigated by TEM in epoxy-embedded and nonembedded non-demineralized sections. The hypothesis advanced was that no difference in ultramorphology of the hybrid layer would result from either specimen preparation method. The two adhesive systems were applied to four mid-coronal dentin disks per manufacturer's instructions. One half of each sample was processed following common procedures for TEM sample preparation with epoxy embedding, whereas the other half was not embedded but instead immersed in hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), dried and mounted so that it protruded from a base of cold-cure acrylic resin. Each sample was then sectioned using a diamond knife in an ultramicrotome. With either means of preparation, a hybrid layer with a relatively uniform electron density and a loose collagen fibril arrangement with electron lucent interfibrillar channels was formed by OPTI. At the base of the hybrid layer, collagen fibrils were anchored in the underlying unaffected dentin, and no microporosities or gaps were observed. Similarly, whether SBMP was embedded or nonembedded, it was found to have a hybrid layer of variable electron density and an electron dense phase localized at the surface of the hybrid layer. No porosities were evident at the base of the hybrid layer. Thus, with either of the two adhesive systems, no ultrastructural difference in hybrid layer formation was observed between epoxy-embedded and nonembedded sections, and no direct evidence of ineffective resin-infiltration of the demineralized collagen scaffold was found. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Investigations on Metal Catalysts. XXXII. On Alloying and Dispersion of Nickel-Rhenium CatalystsUnsupported Ni—Re catalysts were prepared by reduction of mixtures from NiO and NH4ReO4 at 400°C with hydrogen (1st series), followed by a heat treatment at 650°C in flowing hydrogen (2nd series). The bimetallic powders were characterized by DTA investigations, X-ray measurements, N2 adsorption, and CO chemisorption. The degree of alloying and the changes in dispersion as a result of adding a second metal to a basic one is discussed.
    Notes: Trägerfreie Nickel-Rhenium-Katalysatoren wurden durch Reduktion von Gemischen aus NiO und NH4ReO4 bei 400°C mittels Wasserstoffs hergestellt (1. Serie) bzw. durch nachfolgendes Tempern der Proben bei 650°C im Wasserstoffstrom (2. Serie) erhalten. Die Bimetallpulver wurden mittels Differentialthermoanalyse (DTA), Röntgenphasenanalyse, BET-Oberflächengrößenbestimmung und CO-Chemisorption charakterisiert. Es werden Aussagen zum Umfang der Legierungsbildung sowie zur Dispersität der Bimetallkristallite getroffen.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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