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  • 1
    Keywords: MODEL ; DISEASE ; POPULATION ; FAMILY ; treatment ; HEALTH ; statistics ; CENTRAL-NERVOUS-SYSTEM ; POPULATION-BASED SAMPLE ; EUROPE ; INJURY ; OBSTRUCTIVE SLEEP-APNEA ; QUALITY-OF-LIFE ; GUILLAIN-BARRE-SYNDROME ; 3 SICILIAN MUNICIPALITIES ; COMMON MENTAL-DISORDERS ; IDIOPATHIC PARKINSONS-DISEASE ; SCHOOL-AGE-CHILDREN ; TREATMENT OUTCOME RESEARCH
    Abstract: Background: The spectrum of disorders of the brain is large, covering hundreds of disorders that are listed in either the mental or neurological disorder chapters of the established international diagnostic classification systems. These disorders have a high prevalence as well as short- and long-term impairments and disabilities. Therefore they are an emotional, financial and social burden to the patients, their families and their social network. In a 2005 landmark study, we estimated for the first time the annual cost of 12 major groups of disorders of the brain in Europe and gave a conservative estimate of 386 billion for the year 2004. This estimate was limited in scope and conservative due to the lack of sufficiently comprehensive epidemiological and/or economic data on several important diagnostic groups. We are now in a position to substantially improve and revise the 2004 estimates. In the present report we cover 19 major groups of disorders, 7 more than previously, of an increased range of age groups and more cost items. We therefore present much improved cost estimates. Our revised estimates also now include the new EU member states, and hence a population of 514 million people. Aims: To estimate the number of persons with defined disorders of the brain in Europe in 2010, the total cost per person related to each disease in terms of direct and indirect costs, and an estimate of the total cost per disorder and country. Methods: The best available estimates of the prevalence and cost per person for 19 groups of disorders of the brain (covering well over 100 specific disorders) were identified via a systematic review of the published literature. Together with the twelve disorders included in 2004, the following range of mental and neurologic groups of disorders is covered: addictive disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders, brain tumor, childhood and adolescent disorders (developmental disorders), dementia, eating disorders, epilepsy, mental retardation, migraine, multiple sclerosis, neuromuscular disorders, Parkinson's disease, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, sleep disorders, somatoform disorders, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Epidemiologic panels were charged to complete the literature review for each disorder in order to estimate the 12-month prevalence, and health economic panels were charged to estimate best cost-estimates. A cost model was developed to combine the epidemiologic and economic data and estimate the total cost of each disorder in each of 30 European countries (EU27 + Iceland, Norway and Switzerland). The cost model was populated with national statistics from Eurostat to adjust all costs to 2010 values, converting all local currencies to Euro, imputing costs for countries where no data were available, and aggregating country estimates to purchasing power parity adjusted estimates for the total cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Results: The total cost of disorders of the brain was estimated at (sic)798 billion in 2010. Direct costs constitute the majority of costs (37% direct healthcare costs and 23% direct non-medical costs) whereas the remaining 40% were indirect costs associated with patients production losses. On average, the estimated cost per person with a disorder of the brain in Europe ranged between (sic)285 for headache and (sic)30,000 for neuromuscular disorders. The European per capita cost of disorders of the brain was (sic)1550 on average but varied by country. The cost (in billion (sic)PPP 2010) of the disorders of the brain included in this study was as folows: addiction: (sic)65.7; anxiety disorders: (sic)74.4; brain tumor: (sic)5.2; child/adolescent disorders: (sic)21.3; dementia: (sic)105.2; eating disorders: (sic)0.8; epilepsy: (sic)13.8; headache: (sic)43.5; mental retardation: (sic)43.3; mood disorders: (sic)113.4; multiple sclerosis: (sic)14.6; neuromuscular disorders: (sic)7.7; Parkinson's disease: (sic)13.9; personality disorders: (sic)27.3
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 21924589
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-0838
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine , Sports Science
    Notes: In several studies estimated energy intake has been found to be low compared with estimated energy expenditure in female athletes. It has therefore been suggested that female athletes may have a depressed basal energy expenditure (BMR). The main purpose of the present study was to explore this possibility by measuring BMR in physically extremely active females. Eight female dancers and 7 controls with low physical activity, all musicians, were studied; the variables measured included body weight, height, skinfold thickness and total body potassium. BMR was measured by indirect calorimetry. In conclusion, the present study lends no support to the idea of a lowered basal metabolic rate in female athletes as an explanation of the general finding of a lower estimated energy intake than energy expenditure in this type of subjects.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The electron microscopic appearance of Chlamydia pneumoniae elementary bodies with pear-shaped, loose outer membrane has been suggested as one criterion of its classification as a new chlamydial species. The study of the original strain TW 183 in LCL 929 and HL cells and a low-passage isolate of Kajaani-6 isolate in HL cells revealed spherical compact elementary bodies common to other chlamydia.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Allergy 28 (1973), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1398-9995
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2516
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary. During treatment of a haemophilia A patient with a high-responding inhibitor against factor VIII coagulant activity (VIII:C), we observed a difference in recovery of VIII:C depending upon which factor concentrate was infused. Inhibitor plasma samples or IgG fraction from seven patients were tested against a panel of seven different commercially available factor VIII concentrates of which five were plasma-derived and two recombinant. In two of the plasma samples, inhibitor titres manifested a wide range of values depending upon which concentrate was used in the test system. Thus, inhibitor neutralization was less and VIII:C recovery greater when factor VIII concentrates containing large amounts of von Willebrand factor were used than when highly purified concentrates containing no von Willebrand factor or only trace amounts were used. In both of these two patients the inhibitor was directed against the light chain of factor VIII, and it is possible that the epitope of the light chain with which the inhibitor reacts is partly blocked by the von Willebrand factor.We conclude that inhibitors may differ in their reactivity with factor VIII molecules contained in clotting factor concentrates, and that there is factor VIII epitope variation between different concentrates. These findings have implications for the selection of concentrates for the treatment of inhibitor patients and the haemostatic effect may be improved if a concentrate giving the lowest inhibitor titre is chosen. Thus, in vitro testing of inhibitor reactivity with a panel of concentrates is recommended when treatment of inhibitor patients with factor VIII concentrates is considered.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1436-6215
    Keywords: Iron-absorption ; heme-iron ; Eisen-Resorption ; Haem-Eisen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Die relative intestinale Resorption von Haem- und Nichthaem-Eisen in Verbindung mit einer standardisierten Testmahlzeit wurde bei fertilen Frauen sowohl bei normalen Versuchspersonen als auch bei Frauen im Eisenmangel gemessen. Im Eisenmangel wurde das Haem-Eisen deutlich besser resorbiert (16.13%±S.D. 8.0 gegenüber 4.59±3.4, p〈0.01, sowie 22.03±8.9 gegenüber 9.45±7.8, p〈0.05). Für die gezielte Prophylaxe eines Eisenmangels mit kleinen, nebeneffektfreien Dosierungen ist Haem-Eisen daher eine wertvolle Komponente, welche die Resorption um 40% steigert. Haem-Eisen verursacht keine hohen Konzentrationen freier Radikale im intestinalen Lumen, die möglicherweise schädlich wirkendes zweiwertiges Eisen induziert.
    Notes: Summary The relative intestinal absorption of heme- and non heme-iron in connection with a standardized test meal was studied in a group of fertile women given 16 mg Fe in the form of FeSO4 and 2 mg Fe in the form of hemoglobin. Both in normal subjects and in women with iron deficiency, the heme-iron was significantly better absorbed (16.13%±S.D. 8.0 vs 4.59±3.4, p〈0.01 and 22.03±8.9 vs 9.45±7.8, p〈0.05). For targeted prophylaxis of iron deficiency with small, side-effect-free doses, heme-iron is thus a valuable component which increases the absorption by about 40%. Heme-iron does not cause high concentrations in the intestinal lumen of free radical inducing, possibly harmful ferric iron.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1435-4373
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract A complement fixation (CF) test, a micro-immunofluorescence (micro-IF) test and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using Re-lipopolysaccharide as antigen were compared in the diagnosis of chlamydial infection in 136 mainly elderly patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia during aChlamydia pneumoniae epidemic in Finland in 1986–1987. Chlamydial pneumonia was diagnosed in 58 (42.6 %) of the 136 pneumonia patients; 44 (75.9 %) of them could be shown by micro-IF to be caused byChlamydia pneumoniae, three byChlamydia psittaci and four byChlamydia spp. Only 5 (11.4 %) of 44 patients withChlamydia pneumoniae pneumonia were IgM-positive, indicating that the majority of cases were reinfections. In this population of mainly elderly patients the CF test was insensitive, being positive in only 6 (10.3 %) of 58 cases of chlamydial pneumonia. The EIA detected 72.4 % of cases and micro-IF 87.9 % of cases (including infections withChlamydia pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci andChlamydia spp.). In the EIA 77 % of positive cases were positive in serum samples taken a week apart, whereas the corresponding figure for micro-IF was 50 %. In micro-IF the measurement of IgA antibody levels is recommended and IgM-positive sera should be retested after removal of IgG antibody to avoid false-positive findings due to presence of rheumatoid factor. The collection of a third serum sample, for instance one month after onset, is also recommended, since half of the patients showed a diagnostic response in the micro-IF only in the sera taken one month apart.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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