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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 417 (2002), S. 52-55 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Three-dimensional (3D) metallic crystals are promising photonic bandgap structures: they can possess a large bandgap, new electromagnetic phenomena can be explored, and high-temperature (above 1,000 °C) applications may be possible. ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-3083
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Schistosoma mansoni infection is characterized by a strong T-helper type 2 (Th2) cell-associated immune response, but in the case of viral infection, it is associated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) increase and induction of Th1 immune response. Few data are available about the immune response of cases infected with combined hepatitis C virus (HCV) and schistosomiasis. Thus, the investigation of the cytokine pattern in patients coinfected with both HCV and Schistosoma mansoni was our rationale. This study included four patient groups: Group 1 included 20 patients infected with chronic HCV, Group 2 included 15 patients infected with schistosomiasis alone, Group 3 included 20 patients with chronic HCV and schistosomiasis and Group 4 included 15 healthy control individuals with matched age and sex. Serum levels of IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10 and IL-18 were measured in all groups by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results showed that the patients infected with HCV had significantly higher serum levels of IFN-γ and IL-18 compared with the controls and with the patients with schistosomiasis and coinfection (P 〈 0.001). On the other hand, serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 were significantly higher in patients with schistosomiasis and coinfection compared with the control group (P 〈 0.001 and 0.0001, respectively) and with the HCV patients (P 〈 0.05 and P 〈 0.001, respectively). A significant increase in serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10 was also found in HCV patients compared with the control (P 〈 0.05). Schistosomiasis appears to induce a Th2 cytokine profile, with increase in serum levels of IL-4 and IL-10, even in the presence of HCV coinfection. In conclusion, schistosomiasis may downregulate the stimulatory effect of HCV on Th1 cytokines and this may lead to the chronicity of HCV infection in coinfected patients.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxin ; broad bean ; cultivars ; fungi ; hybrid ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract One hundred different cultivars and lines of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) seed samples were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus Link (CMI 102135) to determine varietal differences which may support or resist aflatoxin production. Thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the chloroform extracts of the different seed samples revealed that 11 cultivars/lines were highly resistant to seed invasion and aflatoxin production while 9 cultivars/lines showed partial resistance. The remaining 80 samples were susceptible to the establishment of A. flavus and aflatoxin accumulation. All the resistant cultivars/lines seed samples were inoculated also with three local isolates of fungi namely; Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb. ex Link) Hughes, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm, and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. The resistant seed samples were also resistant for colonization with these fungi and mycotoxin formation.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Fungi ; mycoflora ; spices
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-eight genera and 81 species of fungi were isolated and identified from 120 samples of 24 kinds of spices collected from different places at Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Predominant genera wereAspergillus (25 species) andPenicillium (7 species) of whichA. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus var.columnaris, A. terreus, P. chrysogenum andP. corylophilum were the most commonly occurring.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: Aflatoxins ; cotton seeds ; cotton seed products ; mycoflora and mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-nine species and 16 fungal genera were isolated from Egyptian cotton seeds, cotton seed meal and cotton seed cake on 1% glucose-Czapek's agar medium incubated at 28 °C. Aspergillus was the most frequent genus and it emerged in 87–100% of the samples contributing 70–98% of total fungi in the three substrates tested. The most common species were A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. terreus and Rhizopus stolonifer; A. niger, A. fumigatus and Penicillium corylophilum; and A. niger, A. flavus, A. terreus, A. nidulans and Rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. Cotton seeds and cotton seed products were naturally contaminated by aflatoxin B1 and B2. About 16% of the different substrates tested were positive for aflatoxin contamination. No citrinin, ochratoxin A, patulin, sterigmatocystin, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin or zearalenone were detected in the samples assayed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Thirty-seven species and one variety which belonging to nineteen genera were identified from 50 wheat straw samples collected from different places in Egypt by using the dilution-plate method on cellulose-Czapek's agar medium with pH 5.5 and pH 8.Stachybotrys was the most frequent genus at pH 8 (84% of samples) and the fourth most frequent at pH 5.5 (56% of samples).Aspergillus was the most frequent genus at pH 5.5 but retreated to the third place, behindStachybotrys andFusarium at pH 8.Fusarium was the second most frequent at both pHs.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 30 genera and 77 species, in addition to 4 varieties were isolated from 25 samples of each of barley, wheat, maize and sorghum grains collected from different places in Egypt. The broadest spectrum of genera and species was recorded in wheat (25 genera and 59 species + 4 varieties) followed by barley (21 genera and 52 species + 2 varieties), sorghum (14 genera and 33 species + 2 varieties) and maize grains (11 genera and 29 species + 2 varieties). Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most common genera in the four grains, except maize where Penicillium emerged in low frequency. Aspergillus was the main component of the fungal flora of the four grains and contributed 79–94.4% of the gross total count of fungi. From the preceding genera A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, F. oxysporum, P. chrysogenum, P. corylophilum, P. notatum and R. stolonifer were the most frequent.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: aflatoxin ; cow pea cultivars ; garden pea ; mycotoxins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Different cultivars of cow pea and garden pea seeds were surveyed for susceptibility or resistance towards the toxigenic and aflatoxin-producing mould (Aspergillus flavus IMI 102135). The results show that aflatoxin production varied among the different cultivars of both cow pea and garden pea. Morphological and histological characters of the different cultivars tested did not show any relation between colour, shape and size of seeds and the amount of aflatoxin produced. The chemical analysis of the different constituents obtained from both seed coats and seed kernels with susceptible, partially resistant and resistant cow pea and garden pea cultivars revealed that the resistant cultivars of cow pea (namely: Balady cultivar) and garden pea (namely: Melting Sugar cultivar) contained lower levels of sodium and higher levels of phosphate and potassium.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Keywords: fungi ; storage fungi ; grain-borne fungi ; mycotoxin ; trichothecene
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract 120 species and 38 genera were collected from 64 samples of paddy grains on glucose- and cellulose-Czapek's agar at 28 °C. The total count of glycophilic and cellulose-decomposing fungi fluctuated between 216–29760; and 124–11320 colonies/g paddy grains on the two media, respectively. On glucose agar, the most common species were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. sydowi, A. terreus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. corylophilum, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Trichoderma viride and Mucor racemosus. On cellulose agar with pH 5.5 & 8.0, the most prevalent fungi were Stachybotrys chartarum, S. bisybi, Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium oxysporum, Alternaria alternata, Drechslera sativus and Acremonium strictum. Extracts from 64 paddy samples were tested against brine shrimp larvae (Artemis salina). Of these 9 displayed varying degrees of toxicity. Trichothecene-toxins were detected in the extracts of three paddy samples only. Diacetoxyscirpenol and T-2 toxin were detected in two samples and only T-2 toxin in the other.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mycopathologia 66 (1979), S. 187-190 
    ISSN: 1573-0832
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract To evaluate the potential for mycotoxin production by fungi contaminating blue-veined cheese, as well as by the ripening fungus,Penicillium roqueforti, the fungal flora of six of local and imported brands was determined. A total of 19 fungi were isolated from the six brands tested. Fourteen of the isolates were toxic to chicken embryos. The toxigenic fungi produced the following mycotoxins:Aspergillus fumigatus, kojic acid;A. versicolor, sterigmatocystin;Penicillium roqueforti, penicillic acid and unidentified toxic metabolites.
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