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  • 1
    ISSN: 1399-3038
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The production of the cytokines IL-l-α, IL-l-β, IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was measured by a sensitive immunological assay in stimulated whole blood cell cultures from 52 healthy children (33 aged from 1 to 9 years and 19 aged between 10 and 17 years) and 67 healthy adults. When the higher absolute mononuclear cell counts in the peripheral blood samples of the children were taken into account, the relative production of all measured cytokines was lower in the cell cultures of the children than of the adults. In the group of the younger children (〈 10 years) the differences were significant for all measured cytokines. In the group of older children (〉 = 10 years) the values were higher than in the younger children but lower than in adults. The findings indicate that the cellular immunological competence is or can be reduced in children and adolescents, particularly young children below 10 years of age. There seems to be a gradual development of cytokine production during childhood.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1335
    Keywords: Whole blood cell cultures ; Cytokine production ; Urogenital carcinomas ; Immune competence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The production of the cytokines interferon γ (IFN γ), interleukin-1 α (IL-1 α) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) was investigated in the mitogen-stimulated whole blood cell culture media from 51 patients with urinary bladder carcinomas, 52 patients with renal carcinomas, 31 patients with prostatic carcinomas and 360 healthy controls. The cytokines were measured 4 days after induction by a sensitive enzymo-immunological assay. In the blood cell culture supernatants of the patients with urinary bladder carcinomas significancy lower levels of IFN γ (P≤0.001), IL-2 (P≤0.001) and TNFα (P≤0.05) were found as compared to the controls. Blood cells of patients with renal carcinomas had lower production of IFN γ (P≤0.01), IL-2 (P≤0.001) and IL-1α (P≤0.01), whereas the values of the total group of patients with prostatic carcinomas were not significantly different from those of the controls. Lymphocyte and monocyte counts were almost identical in the control and all tumor patient groups. When the patients with renal carcinomas and prostatic carcinomas were analyzed according to their different clinical stages we could show a gradual depression of the IFN-γ levels, which was related to tumor burden.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0006-3525
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The optical activity of the Klebsiella capsular polysaccharides of serotypes K1, K5, K6, K8, K11, K56, and K57 has been studied in aqueous solution. Measurements of ORD in the range 185-450 nm reveal anomalous ORD with Cotton effects near λ0 = 195nm. The results are evaluated quantitatively according to hte Moffitt-Yang and the Drude equations. Straight lines are obtained in the Moffitt-Yang plots, while the corresponding Drude plots yield bent curves. The b0 values, calculated from the slope of the stright lines in the Moffitt-Yang plot, range from 90 to 270 and suggest a helical superstructure for the capsular polysaccyharides. Positive b0 values have been found for K1, K5, and K6 and negative b0 values for K8, k11, K56, ad K57. Circular dichrosim has been mesured, but the CD curves are found to be truncated at the lower-wavelength end due to the 185-nm limit of the spectrometer used. Measurements of the temperature dependence of the specific optical rotation [α] reveal in all cases cooperative order-disorder transitions at temperatures, Tm, fro m298 to 323°K. The van′t Hoff enthalpies derived from the width of the transition curves are found to be similar in value to those of polypeptieds in aqueous solution. The K8 polysaccharide shows a two-step transition. The results are discussed in relation to the known primary structure and x-ray data from oriented and partially crystalline films. A model is suggested for the two-step transition in the K8 polysaccharide.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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