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    Keywords: CANCER ; human ; PATHWAY ; PATHWAYS ; DISEASE ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; GENE ; GENES ; TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR ; ASSOCIATION ; polymorphism ; SUSCEPTIBILITY ; LYMPHOMA ; case-control studies ; INDIVIDUALS ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; FACTOR-ALPHA ; CYTOKINE ; case-control study ; case control studies ; single-nucleotide ; single-nucleotide polymorphism ; GENOTYPE DATA ; pooled analysis ; INTERLEUKIN-10 ; PROMOTER POLYMORPHISMS ; BIOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
    Abstract: Background Common genetic variants in immune and inflammatory response genes can affect the risk of developing non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We aimed to test this hypothesis using previously unpublished data from eight European, Canadian, and US case-control studies of the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph). Methods We selected 12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for analysis, on the basis of previous functional or association data, in nine genes that have important roles in lymphoid development, Th1/Th2 balance, and proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory pathways (IL1A, IL1RN, IL1B, IL2, IL6, IL10, TNF, LTA, and CARD15). Genotype data for one or more single-nucleotide polymorphisms were available for 3586 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and for 4018 controls, and were assessed in a pooled analysis by use of a random-effects logistic regression model. Findings The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) -308G -〉 A polymorphism was associated with increased risk of nonHodgkin lymphoma (p for trend=0 . 005), particularly for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the main histological subtype (odds ratio 1 . 29 [95% CI 1 . 10-1 . 51] for GA and 1.65 [1 . 16-2 . 34] for AA, p for trend 〈 0 . 0001), but not for follicular lymphoma. The interleukin 10 (IL10) -3575T -〉 A polymorphism was also associated with increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (p for trend=0 . 02), again particularly for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (p for trend=0 . 006). For individuals homozygous for the TNF -308A allele and carrying at least one IL 10 -3575A allele, risk of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma doubled (2 . 13 [1 . 37-3 . 32], p=0 . 00083). Interpretation Common polymorphisms in TNF and IL10, key cytokines for the inflammatory response and Th1/Th2 balance, could be susceptibility loci for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Moreover, our results underscore the importance of consortia for investigating the genetic basis of chronic diseases like cancer
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 16389181
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    Keywords: IN-VITRO ; BLOOD ; CELL ; Germany ; EXPOSURE ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; ASSOCIATION ; ALPHA ; LYMPHOMA ; HEALTH ; PLASMA ; FRANCE ; BETA ; UNITED-STATES ; SARCOMA ; TRENDS ; NESTED CASE-CONTROL ; HETEROGENEITY ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; REGRESSION ; GAMMA ; INCREASE ; CLL ; CELL LYMPHOMA ; LEVEL ; methods ; SUBTYPES ; B-CELL ; ENGLAND ; MEDICINE ; RATIO ; BLOOD-LEVELS ; non-Hodgkin ; DDT ; DLBCL ; HEXACHLOROCYCLOHEXANE
    Abstract: Background: There is conflicting epidemiological evidence concerning an increase in risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) associated with elevated blood levels of persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs). Methods: We measured the concentration of 17 OC pesticides, including hexachlorobenzene (HCB), four lindane isomers (alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)), two chlordane species (heptachlor and oxychlordane), four cyclodiene insecticides (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and mirex), six dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) isomers and nine PCB congeners (PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 170, 180 and 194) in plasma samples of 377 subjects, including 174 NHL cases and 203 controls from France, Germany and Spain. The risk of NHL and its major subtypes associated with increasing blood levels of OC pesticides and PCBs was calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Risk of NHL, diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL) did not increase with plasma levels of HCB, beta- HCH, p,p'-dichloro-diphenyl-dichloroethylene (DDE), or total and individual PCBs or their functional groups, in the overall study population. Substantial heterogeneity in DLBCL risk associated with immunotoxic PCBs (p = 0.03) existed between the Spanish subgroup (odds ratio (OR) for immunotoxic PCB plasma level above the median vs below the median was 0.7, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.6) and the French and German subgroups combined (OR 3.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 11.5). Conclusion: We did not find evidence of an association between NHL risk and plasma level of OC pesticides and PCBs
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 17699548
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    Keywords: CLASSIFICATION ; DIAGNOSIS ; INFORMATION ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; POPULATION ; RISK ; SAMPLE ; SAMPLES ; INFECTION ; ASSOCIATION ; antibodies ; antibody ; virus ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; AGE ; PCR ; case-control studies ; PREVALENCE ; QUESTIONNAIRE ; education ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; HETEROGENEITY ; NON-HODGKINS-LYMPHOMA ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; INCREASE ; HCV ; hepatitis C ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA ; SUBTYPES ; GENDER ; BIRTH ; hepatitis B ; C VIRUS-INFECTION ; viral ; LOW-GRADE ; CONTROL-STUDY EPILYMPH ; EXCESS ; MARGINAL ZONE LYMPHOMAS
    Abstract: We investigated lymphoma risk following hepatitis infection in a case-control study of 274 incident lymphoma cases, defined according to the WHO classification, and 336 population controls in Sardinia, Italy. Part of our study population (198 cases and 219 controls) was included in the EPILYMPH study of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in relation to non-Hodgklin's lymphoma risk. Based on questionnaire information on whether and at what age a diagnosis of hepatitis was posed by a physician, systematic anti-HCV antibodies testing in cases and controls by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and HCV-RNA assessment by PCR analyses in positive samples, we investigated more in detail whether hepatitis non-C is also associated with lymphoma risk, and whether risk varies by clinical form of hepatitis (acute or chronic infection). After adjusting by age, gender, education, and area of birth whether from the study area or elsewhere in Italy, a previous generic diagnosis of hepatitis was associated with a significantly elevated lymphoma risk [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8; 95% CI 1.1, 2.8], which was equally increased for hepatitis B (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 0.9, 3.5), for HCV positive subjects overall (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 0.8, 4.8), and for hepatitis non-B non-C (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 0.7, 3.9). Once concurrent infection from other hepatitis viruses was excluded, acute or chronic hepatitis C was the only one showing a consistent risk increase in all lymphoma subtypes, but follicular lymphoma. Some indications of an excess risk of lymphoma were observed also for acute, but not chronic forms of hepatitis B and hepatitis non-B, non C. Self-limited hepatitis C did not show an association. No significant heterogeneity in the risk of major lymphoma subtype was observed. Our results confirm a role of either acute or chronic active HCV infection in lymphomagenesis. Further studies are warranted to test the hypothesis that acute infection from other hepatitis viruses might also increase lymphoma risk
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18446278
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    Keywords: CANCER ; MODEL ; SUPPORT ; EPIDEMIOLOGY ; LONG-TERM ; RISK ; COMPONENTS ; ASSOCIATION ; NO ; LYMPHOMA ; WOMEN ; MEN ; OBESITY ; UNITED-STATES ; case-control studies ; ALCOHOL-CONSUMPTION ; nutrition ; B-CELL LYMPHOMA ; ONCOLOGY ; case-control study ; REGRESSION ; MALIGNANT-LYMPHOMA ; WEIGHT ; PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY ; HEIGHT ; non-Hodgkin lymphoma ; analysis ; diffuse large B-cell lymphoma ; SUBTYPES ; BODY-MASS INDEX ; pooled analysis ; OVERWEIGHT ; USA ; BMI ; RISK-FACTOR ; CANCER-RISK ; B-CELL ; ENGLAND ; RATIO ; non Hodgkin lymphoma ; EXCESS ; POOLED-ANALYSIS ; NO EVIDENCE ; non-Hodgkin ; CONSORTIUM ; nutritional status ; INTERLYMPH ; body mass index weight ; FORMER COLLEGE-STUDENTS ; LYMPHOHEMATOPOIETIC MALIGNANCIES ; SCANDINAVIAN MEN
    Abstract: Nutritional status is known to alter immune function, a suspected risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). To investigate whether long-term over, or under, nutrition is associated with NHL, self-reported anthropometric data on weight and height from over 10,000 cases of NHL and 16,000 controls were pooled across 18 case-control studies identified through the International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium. Study-specific odds ratios (OR) were estimated using logistic regression and combined using a random-effects model. Severe obesity, defined as BMI of 40 kg m(-2) or more, was not associated with NHL overall (pooled OR = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-1.41) or the majority of NHL subtypes. An excess was however observed for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (pooled OR = 1.80, 95% CI 1.24-2.62), although not all study-specific ORs were raised. Among the overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg m(-2)) and obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg m(-2)), associations were elevated in some studies and decreased in others, while no association was observed among the underweight (BMI 〈 18.5 kg m(-2)). There was little suggestion of increasing ORs for NHL or its subtypes with every 5 kg m(-2) rise in BMI above 18.5 kg m(-2). BMI components height and weight were also examined, and the tallest men, but not women, were at marginally increased risk (pooled OR = 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.34). In summary, whilst we conclude that there is no evidence to support the hypothesis that obesity is a determinant of all types of NHL combined, the association between severe obesity and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma may warrant further investigation. (C) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
    Type of Publication: Journal article published
    PubMed ID: 18167059
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