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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1600-0528
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The devastating orofacial gangrenous disease known as cancrum oris (noma) is still commonly seen in underprivileged Nigerian children. These children are usually victims of such stressors as chronic malnutrition, numerous endemic communicable diseases and severe adverse physical conditions which may lead to depletion of their adaptive resources or produce physiological maladaptation to additional stressors. Measles is the most common infection preceding the development of noma in Nigerian children. Acquired immunodeficiency as well as the impaired endocrine balance of the chronically malnourished permits, for example, widespread infection with the measles virus. Anergy resulting from the combination of malnutrition and measles virus infection promotes selective overgrowth and invasion by an infective consortium consisting of anaerobic organisms and other species capable of elaborating necessary growth factors for the former. Because of the pre-existing depletion of adaptive physiologic resources in the malnourished child, the infection is not readily contained locally as necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis but instead spreads rapidly to the next naturally occurring anatomical barriers. This is then followed by continuing necrosis and possible sequestration as exemplified by noma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    ISSN: 1752-7325
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    ISSN: 1365-4632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of neurochemistry 24 (1975), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1471-4159
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: —Male rats of the Sprague-Dawley strain (80–250 g body wt) were fed either an adequate protein diet (18% lactalbumin) or a protein-deficient diet (0.5% lactalbumin). After 5–8 weeks of receiving the low protein diet, some of the malnourished rats were rehabilitated with an adequate protein diet. The malnourished rats exhibited significant elevations in brain levels of histidine (+415%) and homocarnosine (+100%) in comparison to findings in the control animals of similar age. Associated with the elevated brain levels of histidine in malnutrition was a prominent increase in brain content of histamine (+ 150-+ 238%). The mean brain histamine levels (ng/g) in the control rats varied from 45.96 to 56.15 in several experiments. In the protein-deficient rats, values ranged from 115 to 190. Refeeding the malnourished rats with adequate protein diet elicited reversal of histidine and histamine levels to near normal values within 1 week. The increased brain content of histamine in malnutrition was attributed to enhanced rate of production resulting from increased availability of the precursor amino acid, a conclusion consistent with elevation also of the brain content of homocarnosine (γ-aminobutyryl-l-histidine) which is another major route of disposal of histidine in the brain. The relevance of these neurochemical alterations to the behavioural changes often associated with protein malnutrition, deserves some intensive examination.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-6903
    Keywords: Brain ; histidine ; starvation ; malnutrition
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Total withdrawal of food from young rats for 72–120 h produced an increase in brain content of free histidine which was less pronounced than the effect of prolonged dietary protein deficiency. The data suggested that the elevated brain content of histidine in both fasting and protein deficiency was due partly to increased plasma level of the amino acid but mainly to diminished plasma concentrations of the neutral amino acids known to share the same transport system across the blood-brain barrier. The results also support the idea that total starvation, and most likely, prolonged caloric restriction, like protein malnutrition, elicit increased formation of histamine in brain since the key regulatory enzyme,l-histidine carboxylyase (EC 4.1.1.22) functions at less than maximal efficiency under normal brain levels of histidine. These findings in the rat are probably relevant to the human in view of evidence that theK m of blood-brain barrier neutral amino acid transport in the latter is low and therefore similar to the situation in the rat.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-2568
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Five-week-old rats fed 0.5% protein diet for at least 6 weeks, as well as the progeny of female rats fed either 18 or 5% protein diet during pregnancy and lactation, were studied for iron absorption. In the former, iron retention varied from 2.8 to 4.7% of the ingested dose. Raising the dietary protein level fed these malnourished rats to 18% produced prompt and marked enhancement of iron retention which varied with duration of re-feeding with adequate protein. Compared with the progeny of adequately fed mothers, the offspring of malnourished dams demonstrated prominent reduction in iron absorption at weaning. Re-feeding with high-protein diet elicited prompt increase in body weight with concomitant enhancement of the proportion of ingested iron retained.
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