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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: summary The study aimed to investigate occlusal factors in fixed partial dentures (FPDs) still in service for more than 10 years, and to assess the patients' opinions regarding oral function with these constructions. Thirty-four patients with 43 FPDs were examined clinically concerning occlusion and by means of a questionnaire on functional aspects. The most common occlusal contact pattern was group function (51% on both sides, 7% on one side) while canine protected occlusion was recorded in 16% on both sides, 7% on one side. Balanced occlusion (19%) was mainly found when the FPD occluded against a complete denture and when there were few abutments and a small amount of abutment supporting tissue. The number and intensity of the occlusal contacts were assessed by means of thin occlusal sheets (50pm). On average, one occlusal contact was observed on each dental unit with antagonist. The average number of sheets that could be introduced between the antagonists when the patient bit hard in the intercuspal position was two without significant differences between different areas (anterior/posterior) or type of dental unit (abutment, pontics, cantilever section). In the cantilever sections there were looser contacts (more interocclusal sheets) more distally. The great majority of patients were satisfied with the function of their FPDs (mastication, phonetics, aesthetics, comfort, and hygiene). Subjective function was not significantly influenced by FPD design, occlusal factors or number of FPD units. The only significant difference observed was that patients with a small amount of supporting tissues said they had more difficulties with hard foods than the others had. Although a stable occlusion was found in all FPDs, none of the other occlusal parameters examined were related to the long-term results.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2842
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of this study was to analyse the patient evaluation of functional treatment outcome in 40 periodontally compromised patients who received implant-supported prostheses (ISPs) as part of the total treatment. The treatment protocol comprised periodontal treatment, extraction of teeth with poor prognosis, placement of dental titanium implants, and after healing, insertion of fixed ISPs. Five of the patients became edentulous in one jaw after extraction of all teeth and received a complete ISP, whereas 35 patients became partially edentulous after extraction of some teeth, 12 receiving a partial ISP on ≥ 3 implants, and 23 one on two implants. The follow-up period was on average 1˙8 years after the connection of the prostheses, which provided the patients a dentition with a mean of 12 occluding dental units. The first author (S.-W. Yi) performed all implant treatment. Patients’ opinions on oral functions – mastication, phonetics, oral hygiene, chewing comfort and aesthetics – were evaluated by means of a questionnaire both before implant installation and at the last follow-up. A control group of 30 subjects with a healthy dentition of 14 occluding natural pairs of teeth answered the same questionnaire on one occasion. A great majority of the patients were extremely satisfied with the oral function after treatment and experienced the ISPs as ‘natural teeth’. There was no significant difference between the three treatment groups and the control group for mastication, phonetics, chewing comfort and aesthetics. Patients with ISPs reported a small but significantly greater difficulty with oral hygiene procedures than the controls with natural teeth. Most patients said that they would undergo the treatment again, if necessary, and recommend it to others. It was concluded that the rehabilitation of the periodontally compromised patients, including ISPs on osseointegrated dental titanium implants, resulted in subjectively improved and satisfactory oral function.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    FEBS Letters 196 (1986), S. 341-343 
    ISSN: 0014-5793
    Keywords: Diabetes Enzyme inhibition Streptozotocin Succinyl-CoA synthetase
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : Munksgaard International Publishers
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The objective of the present experiment was to study the soft and hard tissure healing following treatment of experimentally induced peri-implantitis. 5 labrador dogs about 1-year old were used. The mandibular right and left 1st molars, 4th and 3rd premolars were removed, titanium fixtures (Brånemark System®) were installed, and standard abutements were connected in a 2nd stage procedure. After 3 months experimental peri-implantitis was induced by the placement of cotton floss ligatures in a submarginal position. 6 weeks later the ligatures were removed. 1 month after ligature removal, an antibiotic regimen was initiated. During a 3-week period, each dog was given tablets of amoxicillin and metronidazole. In the left side of the mandible, buccal and lingual mucoperiosteal flaps were elevated and granilation tissure within the bone craters curetted. The abutments were removed. The exposed outer surface and the internal part of the fixtures were carefully cleaned with a detergent (delmopinol HC1). An e-PTFE membrane was placed over each fixture and adjusted to cover the bone crater. New cover screws were fitted through the membranes to the cleaned fixtures. The implants were submerged and the flaps sutured. In the right side of the mandible no local treatment was performed. The dogs were sacrificed after 4 months and biopsies prepared for histological examination. The findings indicated that treatment of a peri-implantitis lesion, including comprehensive systemic antimicrobial therapy and cleaning of submerged implants resulted in (i) the elimination of the inflammatory process in the peri-implantitis tissues and (ii) the establishment of a dense connective tissue capsule in direct contact with the previously exposed surface of the implant system. It was also observed that (iii) new bone was frequently laid down on the pristine cover screws.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Using 5 Labrador dogs, certain characteristics of the peri-implant tissues were analyzed after using a 1-step surgical procedure for installation of Brånemark® implants. Six titanium implants, 3 in each mandibular quadrant, were installed in the regions of the right and left first molars and the fourth and third premolars. In the right mandibular quadrant, a traditional 2-step procedure was employed, whilst in the left quadrant, a 1-step procedure was carried out. The animals were monitored during a 6-month period. Biopsies of the healed peri-implant mucosa showed signs of superficial inflammation. The histological analysis revealed that i) the connective tissue lateral to the junctional epithelium showed limited accumulations of inflammatory cells (PICT), and ii) that at implant sites that had been exposed to the oral cavity for 6 months (1-step implants), an inflammatory cell infiltrate (abutment ICT) consistently was present in the tissues facing the abutment-fixture junction (AFJ). This infiltrate was separated from the bone crest by a 0.8mm-wide zone of normal connective tissue. Irrespective of the surgical procedure applied, the radiographic and histometric measurements disclosed that i) the crestal bone loss was about 2.4mm, ii) the height of the peri-implant mucosa varied from 3.5mm to 3.9mm, iii) the bone crest was located 1.1–1.5 mm apical of AFJ as well as of the apical termination of the junctional epithelium (aJE), and iv) a junctional epithelium of 2.1–2.4mm faced the implant surface. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, using a dog model, titanium dental implants ad modum Branemark installed according to a 1-step or to a 2-step surgical procedure will obtain similar soft tissue adaptation and proper bone anchorage (osseointegration). Further studies are, however, required to ascertain the long-term clinical feasibility of the 1-step approach.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: This investigation was performed to assess the bone-to-implant surface contact at fixtures of titanium that either had a standard machine prepared or a TiO2-blasted surface. Five beagle dogs were used in the experiment. Extractions of the premolars were performed in the maxilla. After 4 months of healing, 5 standard machine-prepared fixtures and 5 prepared according to the TioBlast technique were inserted. Two months later another 5 “standard” and 5 TiO Blast-prepared implants were inserted. Four months after the first fixture installation, the animals were killed and ground sections prepared from each implant site. Of the 20 implants installed, 19 were successfully incorporated. The mean bone-to-implant surface for “standard” fixtures was about 40% both at the 2 and 4 months observation interval. The corresponding figures for the TiO Blast-prepared fixtures were similar during the first 2 months of observation, while subsequently the TioBlast-prepared fixture surface seemed to stimulate to a more close bone-to-implant contact (65%) than the “standard” one.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The microflora around titanium implants and teeth in 4 beagle dogs was analyzed in order to follow the longitudinal development from healthy conditions to experimental gingivitis and periodontitis. A 2-month plaque control program was performed to establish healthy conditions on titanium implants and control teeth (baseline, day 0). Subgingival bacterial samples and radiographs were obtained. The plaque control was ceased and all measurements were repeated on day 21 (gingivitis). A new period of plaque control was initiated to re-establish healthy conditions (day 49). A cotton ligature was placed subgingivally around the implants and the control teeth to induce tissue breakdown. The ligatures were removed on day 91. The study was completed with registrations on day 121 (periodontitis). No significant microbiological difference was found between titanium implants and teeth in healthy conditions and in gingivitis and periodontitis. The mean total viable count increased 10 times on implants as well as on teeth. Streptococci were dominating at baseline: 40.2% on implants and 60.6% on teeth and decreased in gingivitis to 11.7% and 5.4%. When periodontitis had developed, the proportion of streptococci was 〈 1%. At baseline few Porphyromonas gingivalis and Prevotella intermedia were detected. They increased at gingivitis to 37.4% and 21.0%; when periodontitis developed, they comprised about 25.0%. Microbial colonization and establishment on titanium implants with healthy gingiva, experimental gingivitis and periodontitis follow the same pattern as on teeth.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of long-standing plaque on the gingiva and peri-implant mucosa. 5 beagle dogs were used in the study. The mandibular right premolars were extracted. 3 months later, 3 titanium fixtures were installed and after another 3 months, abutment connection was performed. Plaque control, in the implant as well as the contralateral tooth regions, was maintained during a 4-month period prior to the start of the main experiment. On Day 0, the teeth and implant sections were examined with respect to plaque and gingivitis. The plaque control program was terminated. The animals were subsequently fed a diet which allowed gross plaque accumulation. After 90 days of undisturbed plaque formation, the dogs were re-examined and biopsies harvested from implants and contralateral teeth. On day 90, all teeth and implants had accumulated large amounts of plaque. The soft tissue at implants and teeth bled on gentle probing. The histological examination of the gingiva and the peri-implant mucosa revealed:(i) both tissues contained an inflammatory cell infiltrate; ICT, (ii) the apical extension of ICT was more pronounced in the peri-implant mucosa than in the gingiva and (iii) the composition of the 2 lesions had many features in common.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effect of de novo plaque formation on the gingiva and masticatory mucosa around teeth and implants. The study was performed in 5 beagle dogs which at the initiation of the experiment were 15 months old. During a preparatory period, the mandibular right premolars were extracted, 3 fixtures installed, abutment connection performed and a 4-month period of plaque control completed. A clinical examination was performed and biopsies of the second mandibular premolar (Pz) and the contralateral implant site (2P) were sampled. The dogs were allowed to form plaque during a period of 3 weeks. The clinical examination was repeated and biopsies harvested from the 2 remaining implants and the contralateral tooth sites. The tissue samples were prepared for histometric and morphometric analysis. Both the masticatory mucosa at implants and the gingiva responded to de novo plaque formation with the development of an inflammatory lesion. The size as well as the composition of the lesions in the 2 tissues had many features in common. It was concluded that the mucosa around implants and the gingiva around teeth had a similar potential to respond to early plaque formation.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1600-0501
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: 9 single crystal sapphire dental implants were installed bilaterally into pre-extracted areas in the lower jaw of two beagle dogs and histologically analysed after 180 days in situ. 8 implants were stable and radiographs disclosed complete bone healing. Light-, scanning- and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the stable implants were surrounded by a mineralizing bone boundary and a mutosa nearly free from inflammatory cell infiltrations. The 9th implant was mobile and surrounded by a non-mineralized connective tissue capsule containing bundles of collagen. The ultrastructure of the mucosa surrounding the implants closely resembled the mucosa surrounding the tooth. Histometric analysis of the alveolar bone surrounding the stable implants revealed that the value of the bone contact surface ranged from 37.1%% to 86.9% (mean value 61.8%) at the light microscopic level.
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