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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Supportive care in cancer 3 (1995), S. 3-4 
    ISSN: 1433-7339
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Longitudinal study ; young adults' first incidence ; major depressive disorder ; recurrent brief depression ; antecedents ; “negative affectivity”
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The purpose of this study was to investigate antecedents of first incidence of major depressive disorder and recurrent brief depression with the help of a cohort of 20 year-old Swiss, who was interviewed four times up to age 30. Cases diagnosed as depressed at the third or fourth interview (age 28 or 30) were compared with never diagnosed controls for antecedents at the first and second interview (age 21 and 23). Besides retrospectively assessed childhood precursors, later depressives showed slight differences in their relationship to parents and friends and early symptoms of subclinical depression, persistent helplessness and a surplus of life events. These antecedents were mainly found in females. The most persistent antecedent of later depression for both sexes was a higher score than controls' on the SCL-90R (“negative affectivity”). Whether this finding signifies that proneness to the milder depressions in young adults is rooted in personality is subject to discussion.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Suicide attempts ; Suicidal ideation ; Young adults ; Life-time prevalence ; Sexual abuse ; Comorbidity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The life-time prevalence of suicide attempts in a Swiss population, interviewed four times between the ages of 20 and 30 years, was 3.8% (females 5.4%, males 2.1%). One fifth of the 30-year-olds reported persistent suicidal ideation. In comparison with controls, attempters reported a more disturbed childhood, and subjects with multiple attempts reported more sexual abuse. Over 10 years attempters persistently showed more negative affectivity, more feelings of helplessness and lower selfesteem. At age 30 they were higher on the scales neuroticism, masculinity and aggressivity in a personality test. Over ten years, a higher than expected comorbidity appeared of suicide attempts with depressive and anxiety disorders, with substance abuse, and with sociopathic features.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Child sexual abuse ; Adult age ; Family risk factors ; Anxiety ; Depression ; Personality
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the course of a 10-year longitudinal investigation of young Swiss adults, childhood sexual abuse was assessed at the age of 30 years. It was reported by 11.5% of women and by 3.5% of men; 56% of the females had been abused by relatives (none of the males), 20% by fathers. Abuse cases tended to be more depressed and anxious; they reported more suicide attempts and more sexual problems than controls and also slightly more psychiatric symptoms and neuroticism. Childhood familial risk factors were more frequent for abuse cases than for controls. Depression at adult age was more strongly connected with early familial risk factors than with early sexual abuse.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Sexual dysfunction ; Longitudinal investigation ; Prevalence ; Chronicity ; Depressive and anxiety disorder ; Sex differences
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In a cohort of young Swiss adults, sexual disturbances and dysfunctions were assessed by interview four times between ages 20 and 30 years. Over 10 years almost every second female and every third male subject reported disturbances. In females at age 30 years, the prevalence of orgasmic difficulties and of dyspareunia corresponded to non-clinical samples of other studies. Also, in accordance with the literature, impaired interest was much more prevalent in females. In males and females, sexual disturbances were to some extent associated with anxiety and depression; in addition, in women, they were also associated with social phobia and eating disorders. With regard to neuroticism, negative affect and reports of an unsatisfactory childhood, subjects with temporary disturbances resembled more strongly those with chronic problems than controls. Compared with the controls, women's sexual disturbances were more chronic and more strongly associated with minor psychiatric symptoms and personality deviance; this finding was less pronounced in men.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Broken Home ; Puberty ; Pregnancy ; Lying-in Period ; Neurosis ; „Broken home“ ; Pubertät ; Schwangerschaft ; Wochenbett ; Neurose
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 100 neurosekranke Patientinnen werden mit 100 schizophrenen derselben Klinik verglichen. Die Erkrankungswahrscheinlichkeit für endogene Psychosen ist bei den Eltern und Geschwistern der Neurosekranken gegenüber der Gesamtbevölkerung nicht faßbar erhöht. Dasselbe gilt für die Broken-home-Häufigkeit sowohl der Neurotikerinnen wie der Schizophrenen. Teilt man die milieugestörten Neurosekranken einerseits in Verwaisungsfälle und andererseits in solche Fälle ein, die vorwiegend durch die ungünstigen sozialen Folgen elterlichen Verhaltens belastet worden sind, so findet man in der letztereren Gruppe prozentual mehr Kinderneurosen als in der ersteren. Die biologische Pubertät zeigt objektiv keine Tendenz zur Auslösung manifester neurotischer Syndrome, und sie wird subjektiv von den Patientinnen selten als pathogen betrachtet, obwohl jene Zeit oft als besonders schwere Belastung erlebt wird. Letzteres steht zum Teil im Zusammenhang mit der fehlenden Aufklärung über die Menarche und mit der allgemeinen Sexualablehnung zuhause, besonders bei den Angehörigen einfacherer Sozialklassen. Ehe, Generationsvorgänge und Mutterschaft sind so selten von günstiger und so häufig von ungünstiger Wirkung auf den Neurosenverlauf, daß der Arzt einen Kunstfehler begeht, wenn er sich von der neurotischen Patientin dahin bringen läßt, ihr zur Heirat zu raten. Andererseits führt die einzelne Schwangerschaft in unserem Material nicht häufig genug zu einer so deutlichen und dauerhaften Verschlimmerung des Leidens, daß man retrospektiv in der Diagnose einer schweren Neurose an und für sich die Voraussetzung für eine Interruptio gemäß Art. 120 StGB („große Gefahr eines dauernden schweren Gesundheitsschadens“) erkennen kann. Daß die Neurose der Mutter für das kommende Kind ein Unglück bedeutet, steht dabei auf einem anderen Blatt.
    Notes: Summary 100 neurotic and 100 schizophrenic female patients from the same hospital are compared. Parents and siblings of the neurotic patients do not show a greater risk of developing an endogenous psychosis as compared to the entire population. This is also true for the incidence of broken homes in neurotic and schizophrenic patients. Neurotic patients who grew up as orphans report fewer neurotic syptoms in childhood than those where the broken home was primarily caused by behaviour disturbances of the parents. Physical puberty does not increase the incidence of neurotic symptoms as compared to earlier or later periods of life. Our patients do not consider puberty as a cause of their illness, although they often experienced it as a time of heavy stress. This stress is partially related to the absence of information about the onset of menstruation and to the general rejection of sexuality in the family, especially in the lower social classes. Since marriage and pregnancy often have an unfavourable and very rarely a positive influence on the course of the neurosis, it amounts to a professional error to advise a neurotic patient to get married. On the other hand a single pregnancy so seldom permanentely aggravates a neurotic illness, that a severe neurosis in itself cannot be considered sufficient reason for a legal abortion.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Maternal deprivation ; Follow-up study ; 14 year olds ; DQ ; IQ ; Emotional/behavioral disorder
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary The opinion that early maternal deprivation (absence of mother, lack of stimulation, multiple caregivers) results in lasting damage to intellectual and emotional development is generally accepted. In a real-time longitudinal study 137 children, part of a representative sample of Kt. Zürich (Switzerland) who spent the first years in residential nurseries, were investigated at age 12.6 ± 8 months and again at age 14 years. In IQ and education this group at follow-up was not different from the general population. The children were no less popular than a control group of classmates. There were, however, among them two to three times more psychiatric cases than among a Swiss comparison group. Behavioral and emotional disorders were not connected with status at first examination or variables of the early environment, but with psychosocial risk factors in the environment the children lived in after leaving the nurseries: parental discord, divorce, psychosocial disorder in parents, presence of step family, abuse. This finding is confirmed by other prospective and retrospective studies. Early deprivation is almost always an indicator that an unfavorable situation will continue throughout childhood. If, on the other hand, the environment changes completely, as it does after adoption, early deprivation by itself does not appear as a risk factor. The role of the mother-child relationship and of early influences in general on personality ought to be reconsidered.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Bipolar ; Depressive ; Premorbid personality ; Neuroticism ; Autonomic lability
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Summary In 1972, all Swiss males in the Canton of Zurich who reported for a compulsory medical examination for selection for military service were given the Freiburg Personality Inventory. This was repeated in half the sample on three subsequent occasions. From 1983 to 1988, an effort was made to identify all male psychiatric cases. There were 99 unipolars and 26 bipolars. The unipolars who had their age of onset after the personality testing displayed elevated scores on a constellation of symptoms labelled autonomic lability which consisted of items that correlated highly with neuroticism. The trait endured even when it was retested at age 36 years. The bipolars did not differ from the controls in any respect on any occasion.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1433-8491
    Keywords: Old age ; Decrease in prevalence ; Major depressive disorder ; Dysthymia ; Hypotheses
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The discrepancy between the constancy or increase of the prevalence of depressive symptoms and dysphoria in old age on one hand, and the decrease in the prevalence of the DSM-III diagnoses of major depression and dysthymia on the other, is discussed in light of the most frequent explanatory hypotheses such as memory defects, interpretation of depressive as somatic symptoms, higher risk of institutionalization as well as higher mortality of depressives and a mitigated course of depression in old age. We conclude that higher mortality, mitigation and the rarity of true late-onset depression are arguments for a real decline in prevalence, which occurs in accordance with the decline in all psychiatric disorders that are connected with emotional upheavals and substance ingestion. On the other hand, the connection of depressive states with somatic illness is strengthened, and according to preliminary validation studies, clinically relevant depressive states not reaching the threshold of DSM-III diagnoses may be typical for the depressive psychopathology of old age.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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