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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: ICAM-1 ; VCAM-1 ; Selectins ; Flow ; Atherosclerosis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract Extensive monocyte recruitment is an early phenomenon associated with the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting an active role for the involvement of adhesion receptors expressed by endothelial cells. In this study we describe the contribution of hemodynamic shear forces in regulating the expression of a few of the monocyte adhesion receptors, including intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), and E-selectin on endothelial cells. A parallel plate flow chamber and recirculating flow loop device was used to expose human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to different levels of shear (2–25 dyn/cm2). Subsequently the cells were analyzed either for shear induced changes in the mRNA levels of adhesion receptors by Northern blot analyses or for changes in the surface expression of ICAM-1 using flow cytometry. Results from the fluorescence analysis showed a transient increase in the surface expression of ICAM-1, 12 hr after exposure to 25 dyn/cm2 shear, returning to basal levels within 24 hr. This was quite different from the time dependent response of ICAM-1 to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), where ICAM-1 expression was maximally induced 18–24 hr poststimulus. ICAM-1 mRNA level appeared slightly elevated after exposure to shear for 1 hr, compared to basal values, but dropped below basal levels within 6 hr. This biphasic response was seen irrespective of the magnitude of applied shear stress. VCAM-1 mRNA expression, in contrast, decreased below the baseline expression within an hour after onset of flow, and appeared to be considerably down-regulated within 6 hr. After exposure to shear for 24 hr no increase in mRNA levels could be detected for either molecule, at any shear magnitude. E-selectin mRNA was less responsive to shear stress, especially at the lower magnitudes of shear. After an hour of exposure to flow E-selectin mRNA level appeared slightly reduced compared with control levels, but it remained at this level even after 6 hr of flow. These results indicate that the expression of adhesion receptors is sensitive to local shear stresses in a manner that is molecule specific in the short term even though prolonged exposure to flow results in similar down-regulation for both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1749-6632
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biotechnology and Bioengineering 32 (1988), S. 1053-1060 
    ISSN: 0006-3592
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: A flow apparatus has been developed for the study of the metabolic response of anchorage-dependent cells to a wide range of steady and pulsatile shear stresses under well-controlled conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers were subjected to steady shear stresses of up to 24 dynes/cm2, and the production of prostacyclin was determined. The onset of flow led to a burst in prostacyclin production which decayed to a long term steady state rate (SSR). The SSR of cells exposed to flow was greater than the basal release level, and increased linearly with increasing shear stress. This study demonstrates that shear stress in certain ranges may not be detrimental to mammalian cell metabolism. In fact, throughout the range of shear stresses studied, metabolite production is maximized by maximizing shear stress.
    Additional Material: 5 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The growth of cultured calf aortic smooth muscle cells on cardiovascular biomaterials was investigated, using native and oxidized polyacrylonitrile (orlon) fabrics, dacron velour, and Parylene-C coated polypropylene microfabric as substrates. By light microscopic evaluation, surface cell coverage was most complete on microfabric, followed by native orlon, dacron velour, and oxidized orlon. Native orlon supported the greatest total cell growth, as determined by chemically extractable protein, followed by oxidized orlon, dacron velour, and the microfabric. The observed differences appear to be related to the pore size and fiber thickness of the different substrates.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Fluid shear stress can stimulate secretion of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) by cultured human endothelial cells, while plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 secretion remains unstimulated. To determine whether hemodynamically induced changes in tPA messenger RNA (mRNA) levels also occur, primary cultures from the same harvst of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells were either maintained in stationary culture or exposed to arterial levels of shear stress (25 dynes/cm2) for 24 hours. Total cellular RNA was isolated from the shear stressed and stationary cultures and the relative levels of tPA mRNA and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA were determined using a coupled reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction method. As indicated by the amount of amplification product, tPA mRNA levels were many fold higher (〉 10) in endothelial cells subjected to shear stress for 24 hours than in stationary controls. In contrast, mRNA levels for GAPDH were similar in control and shear stressed cells. The constancy of the measured GAPDH signal indicated that the tPA response was a selective effect of fluid shear stress. When a similar polymerase chain reaction method was used, the mRNA levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were found not to vary in comparison to GAPDH mRNA after 24 hours of shear stress. These results indicate that enhancement of the fibrinolytic potential of endothelial cells in response to hemodynamic forces could involve transcriptional events.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9304
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: The growth of tissue-cultured aortic endothelial cells from the calf using 12 different configurations of Dacron polyester (U.S. Catheter and Instrument Co.) as substrates was studied. Scanning electron microscopy showed maximum cell coverage on tightly knit configurations, whereas loose knits and velours did not support cell growth.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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