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  • 1
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Gamma-ray and conversion electron spectra were measured in the reaction of 25 MeV deuterons on174Yb,196,198Pt,202,204Hg, and232Th. The (d,pxn) deuteron break-up reactions were studied by the measurement ofpγ- andγγ-coincidences. Levels with spins up to approximately 10ħ are observed in the (d,pn) reactions, with a strong preference of the population of yrast states. In the Pt and Hg nuclei the ground bands are seen up to the 6+ states and in196,198pt the semi-decoupled 5−, 7−, and 9− yrast levels are populated most strongly. In202,204Hg we observe fairly strongly new levels with tentative assignments of 5− and 7−. In addition a number of previously unknown levels are identified in the Pt and Hg nuclei, for which no spin-parity assignments could be obtained. A discussion of the level structure in terms of the interacting boson model (196,198Pt) and the shell model (202,204Hg) is given.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Keywords: 25.45 ; 27.80
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Low lying levels in203Hg and205Hg were studied with the (d, p) deuteron break-up reaction atE d=14 and 18 MeV. Gamma-rays and conversion-electrons were measured in coincidence with protons. In addition delayed spectra were recorded with us and ms beam pulsing. Thei 13/2 neutron hole state was identified in205Hg and confirmed in203Hg. The known level structure of205Hg below 2 MeV is confirmed and extended. For203Hg we observe theγ-decay of several levels below 1.5 MeV, which were previously known from transfer reactions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1435-2451
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract The electronic conductivity of active battery materials has seldom been investigated in detail. The problem is to separate the resistance contributions located in the particle cores and in the particle surfaces. In this paper battery PbO2, the best-known model substance, has been studied.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied electrochemistry 2 (1972), S. 105-112 
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract In the active layer of porous gas electrodes, the spatial distribution of energy generation is determined by several interacting factors, e.g. pore statistics, distribution of active sites, and a set of correlated transport equations. After a short introduction to the problem, it is shown that the transport phenomena can, in this case, be treated in a very simplified manner. In particular, the specific electron resistance can be neglected. Restriction of gas supply can be described by a formalistic gas resistanceρ g. Thus, the interaction of the different transport parameters can be treated by considering purely electrical models. The relative magnitudes of the different parameters, in the case under study, are of such an order that finally it is only necessary to consider two of them: the specific ionic resistivity of the porous electrode filled partly with liquid electrolyte, and a special parameterp which describes the overvoltage in the region between gaseous phase and electrolyte. As a result, the spatial distribution of current generation can be indicated in the form of analytical expressions and diagrams. One also obtains values of the penetration depth of current generation which do not disagree with practical experience.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1434-601X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract In the transition zone between phases of different conduction types, the electrical current is not only unevenly distributed, but also, in many cases, local or temporal instabilities occur. Most of these effects have already been observed, but until now, no theoretical treatment has been published. As a straightforward extension of the linear mathematical treatment of the current distribution in porous electrodes1, an explanation of two classes of purely electrical instabilities can be given. Beyond these purely electrical instabilities, a number of more complicated cases has to be considered. These are local instabilities caused by overlapping singularities, e.g. spots of minor density or conductivity, local and temporal instabilities caused by thermal breakthroughs and instabilities caused by hydrodynamical eddies. Moreover the current distribution shows local and temporal fluctuations as the result of the granular structure of the transition zone.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-8838
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Poröse Batterie-Elektroden können bezüglich ihrer volumetrischen Stromverteilung als elektrische Netzwerke angesehen werden. Lineare, von der Zeit unabhängige Netzwerke hinwiederum können mit analytischen Verfahren theoretisch behandelt werden. In einigen technischen Fällen müssen aber Abweichungen davon berücksichtigt werden: nichtlineare Überspannungs-Funktionen, zeitabhängige Leitfähigkeit. Die Stromverteilung in solchen nichtlinearen und zeitabhängigen Systemen kann entweder numerisch mit einem Rechner oder durch die Untersuchung entsprechender elektrischen Analogmodelle ermittelt werden. Der letztere Weg ist verhältnismässig einfach und wird hier behandelt. Gemessene Überspannungs-Funktionen können z.B. durch Halbleiter-Dioden nachgebildet werden. Änderungen der Leitfähigkeit sind durch nachgeregelte Widerstände berücksichtigt worden. Dazu automatische Bauelemente zu verwenden, z.B. Diaphragmen mit Poren, die sich schliessen, erscheint möglich, ist aber noch nicht erfolgreich durchgeführt worden. Die Maßstäbe für Spannung und Stromstärke müssen den Eigenschaften der verwendeten elektronischen Bauelemente angepaßt werden. Als allgemeingültiges Ergebnis kann man festhalten, dass in technischen Elektroden die tatsächlichen Überspannungs-Funktionen die Stromverteilung merklich beeinflussen können. Absätze oder ‘Schultern’ in den Verteilungs-Funktionen werden beobachtet, welche die Elektroden-Ausnutzung verbessern. Auch die Berücksichtigung der Änderungen des Ionen-Widerstandes hat Einfluss auf die Stromverteilung, führt aber zu einer Verschlechterung der vorherzusagenden Elektroden-Eigenschaften.
    Notes: Abstract Porous battery electrodes can, with respect to their volumetric current distribution, be regarded as electrical networks. Linear, time-independent networks again can be treated by analytical methods. In some practical cases, however, deviations have to be considered: non-linear overvoltage functions, changing conductivities. Current distribution in such non-linear and time-dependent systems can be evaluated either by numerical computor calculations, or by the application of corresponding electrical analogues. The latter way is fairly simple and will be treated here. The observed overvoltage functions can be generated by semiconducting diodes. Changing conductivities have been generated by adjustable resistors. Application of special automatic devices, e.g. diaphragms with closing pores, seems possible but has not been effected so far. Voltage and current scales have to be adapted to the characteristics of the electronic components. In general, we can state, that in some practical electrodes the real overvoltage functions may change the current distribution markedly. Particular ‘shoulders’ in the distribution curves are observed, which ameliorate the electrode utilization. Introduction of measured ionic conductivity changes certainly influences the current distribution but results in deteriorations of the predicted electrode characteristics.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9540
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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