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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-12-04
    Description: Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to address other fundamental questions about eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis, we sequenced the nuclear genomes of the cryptophyte Guillardia theta and the chlorarachniophyte Bigelowiella natans. Both genomes have 〉21,000 protein genes and are intron rich, and B. natans exhibits unprecedented alternative splicing for a single-celled organism. Phylogenomic analyses and subcellular targeting predictions reveal extensive genetic and biochemical mosaicism, with both host- and endosymbiont-derived genes servicing the mitochondrion, the host cell cytosol, the plastid and the remnant endosymbiont cytosol of both algae. Mitochondrion-to-nucleus gene transfer still occurs in both organisms but plastid-to-nucleus and nucleomorph-to-nucleus transfers do not, which explains why a small residue of essential genes remains locked in each nucleomorph.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Curtis, Bruce A -- Tanifuji, Goro -- Burki, Fabien -- Gruber, Ansgar -- Irimia, Manuel -- Maruyama, Shinichiro -- Arias, Maria C -- Ball, Steven G -- Gile, Gillian H -- Hirakawa, Yoshihisa -- Hopkins, Julia F -- Kuo, Alan -- Rensing, Stefan A -- Schmutz, Jeremy -- Symeonidi, Aikaterini -- Elias, Marek -- Eveleigh, Robert J M -- Herman, Emily K -- Klute, Mary J -- Nakayama, Takuro -- Obornik, Miroslav -- Reyes-Prieto, Adrian -- Armbrust, E Virginia -- Aves, Stephen J -- Beiko, Robert G -- Coutinho, Pedro -- Dacks, Joel B -- Durnford, Dion G -- Fast, Naomi M -- Green, Beverley R -- Grisdale, Cameron J -- Hempel, Franziska -- Henrissat, Bernard -- Hoppner, Marc P -- Ishida, Ken-Ichiro -- Kim, Eunsoo -- Koreny, Ludek -- Kroth, Peter G -- Liu, Yuan -- Malik, Shehre-Banoo -- Maier, Uwe G -- McRose, Darcy -- Mock, Thomas -- Neilson, Jonathan A D -- Onodera, Naoko T -- Poole, Anthony M -- Pritham, Ellen J -- Richards, Thomas A -- Rocap, Gabrielle -- Roy, Scott W -- Sarai, Chihiro -- Schaack, Sarah -- Shirato, Shu -- Slamovits, Claudio H -- Spencer, David F -- Suzuki, Shigekatsu -- Worden, Alexandra Z -- Zauner, Stefan -- Barry, Kerrie -- Bell, Callum -- Bharti, Arvind K -- Crow, John A -- Grimwood, Jane -- Kramer, Robin -- Lindquist, Erika -- Lucas, Susan -- Salamov, Asaf -- McFadden, Geoffrey I -- Lane, Christopher E -- Keeling, Patrick J -- Gray, Michael W -- Grigoriev, Igor V -- Archibald, John M -- BB/G00885X/1/Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council/United Kingdom -- Howard Hughes Medical Institute/ -- England -- Nature. 2012 Dec 6;492(7427):59-65. doi: 10.1038/nature11681. Epub 2012 Nov 28.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 4R2, Canada.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23201678" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Algal Proteins/genetics/metabolism ; Alternative Splicing/genetics ; Cell Nucleus/*genetics ; Cercozoa/cytology/*genetics/metabolism ; Cryptophyta/cytology/*genetics/metabolism ; Cytosol/metabolism ; *Evolution, Molecular ; Gene Duplication/genetics ; Gene Transfer, Horizontal/genetics ; Genes, Essential/genetics ; Genome/*genetics ; Genome, Mitochondrial/genetics ; Genome, Plant/genetics ; Genome, Plastid/genetics ; Molecular Sequence Data ; *Mosaicism ; Phylogeny ; Protein Transport ; Proteome/genetics/metabolism ; Symbiosis/*genetics ; Transcriptome/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-03-30
    Description: Rhian F. Walther, Mubarik Burki, Noelia Pinal, Clare Rogerson, and Franck Pichaud In Drosophila epithelial cells, apical exclusion of Bazooka (the Drosophila Par3 protein) defines the position of the zonula adherens (ZA), which demarcates the apical and lateral membrane and allows cells to assemble into sheets. Here, we show that the small GTPase Rap1, its effector Canoe (Cno) and the Cdc42 effector kinase Mushroom bodies tiny (Mbt), converge in regulating epithelial morphogenesis by coupling stabilization of the adherens junction (AJ) protein E-Cadherin and Bazooka retention at the ZA. Furthermore, our results show that the localization of Rap1, Cno and Mbt at the ZA is interdependent, indicating that their functions during ZA morphogenesis are interlinked. In this context, we find the Rap1-GEF Dizzy is enriched at the ZA and our results suggest that it promotes Rap1 activity during ZA morphogenesis. Altogether, we propose the Dizzy, Rap1 and Cno pathway and Mbt converge in regulating the interface between Bazooka and AJ material to promote ZA morphogenesis.
    Print ISSN: 0021-9533
    Electronic ISSN: 1477-9137
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Published by Company of Biologists
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